Estimation of Pollutant Emissions from Transport
: Mr. Robert Joumard (F)
Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité - INRETS
Fax: +33 472 37 68 37
: Mr Olavi H. Koskinen (FIN)
Ministry of Transport
Fax: +358 0 14 87 23 95
Mr A.J. Hickman (UK)
Transport Research Laboratory
Fax: +44 1 344 77 00 28
Mr Z. Samaras (GR)
Aristotle University Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics
Fax: +30 31 99 60 19
Fax: +32 2 296 37 65
5.5 years; completed October 1998.
17 COST Countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Ireland, The Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
2 institutions from non-COST Countries: Technical University of Rousse (Bulgaria), the State Moscow Automobile and Road Technical University (Russian Federation)
The objectives are to co-ordinate research activities in the field of direct or indirect emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants as well as fuel consumption or energy use by transport modes. Four transport modes (road, rail, air and waterborne) are considered, as well as all levels of calculation, from local and instantaneous emissions to worldwide estimation.
The wide field covered by COST 319, as well as the large number of experts involved, led to the formation of four main working groups, specialising in:
- Road emission factors and functions: quantification of emission rates per unit of transport activity and analysis of contributory factors;
- Road traffic characteristics: modelling and measurements of driving behaviour, fleet composition characteristics and statistics, and future trends;
- Inventory tools: study and evaluation of models and procedures to assess road transport emissions;
- Non-road transport: emission factors, traffic characteristics and inventory tools for air, rail and waterborne transport.
Each main group is further divided into subgroups, which have been meeting when necessary. While 80 scientists directly contribute to the project, a network of 150 experts has also been assembled to improve collaboration between the different subgroups and with potential users.
COST 319 has already completed the collection of the available measurement data and statistics for road transport, train and plane emissions. A common European methodology to estimate emissions from average emission factors has been already established. Research has improved the accuracy of estimates, for example by calculating cold start and instantaneous emissions functions needed for local application, or for heavy duty vehicles, for which measurements on test benches are still costly. COST 319 is expected to harmonise and aggregate data and models for large-scale applications (regional, national and European), to improve models for local application, and to improve the compatibility of emission models with models used for traffic estimates and forecasts and those used for calculating the impact of emissions on the environment.
Ever-growing mobility in Europe, and worldwide, has made transport, especially road transport, the major contributor to air pollution, particularly in urban areas. Consequently considerable research effort addresses the problem of transport and the environment. This activity can be categorised under two major headings: studies to estimate the current situation and to forecast the future; and studies to develop and evaluate solutions.
Benefits to Different Users
- The projects results permit the development a set of methodologies accepted by most European experts.
- Participating laboratories are helped to compare and co-ordinate their research methods, and the European countries to co-ordinate their research programmes.
At European level, the project is expected to contribute directly or indirectly to:
- conduct of European emission inventories
- provision of data and methods for definition of appropriate road vehicles inspection and maintenance policies
- definition of and agreement on the most cost-effective vehicles standards
- provision of emission data and methods for infrastructure environmental impact assessment, including at the trans-European Transport Network level.
Manuscript completed in January 1996.
1996 -172 pp - 21.0 x 29.7 cm