D. Foray is currently
Directeur de Recherche
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
at the University of Paris-Dauphine and a part time member of the
International Institute for Applied System Analysis
(IIASA-Laxenburg bei Vienna).
D. Foray received his Ph.D in 1984 and his "habilitation" in 1992 from the UniversitÃ© LumiÃ¨re of Lyon. In 1985, he joined the CNRS as Research Fellow. In 1990 he joined the Ecole Centrale Paris as professor of Economics and returned to CNRS in 1994.
He was invited Professor at the Universities of Padova (Italy) in 1993, of Santiago de Compostella (Spain), in 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998 and of Torino (Italy).
He did long research stays (one to three months) at the WZB (Berlin) in 1986; Stanford University in 1991; and IIASA (Austria) in 1993, 94, and 95.
From 1993 to 1995, he was a permanent consultant (part time) at the OECD (Division for Science, Technology and Industry) where he contributed to the Programme on "National Systems of Innovation". He received the distinction of outstanding research 1993 from CNRS. He is elected as Research Fellow at the ICER foundation (Italy) for the academic year 1999; and at the Institute for Advanced Study Berlin for the academic year 2000.
D. Foray research interests include the economics of science and technology, the economics of production and distribution of knowledge, the exploration of the tension between diversity and standardization in the past and in the present, and the analysis of path-dependent processes of economic change.
CRIS, a cost or an investment? Models of innovation in the information age.
Keynote - Plenary Session
The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that an efficient system assuming specific functions with regard to the process of generating, transforming, transmitting and storing information is a key determinant of the economic performance of an innovation system. Openess of the information system is vital for efficient use of costly research resources in creating reliable knowledge because independent replication of findings is facilitated by open access; generalisation of results proceeds faster when they are widely distributed; excessive duplication of research is avoided by rapid disclosure.
Thus, utilization of existing knowledge stocks (both for direct application in production and as bases for further learning) needs greater attention, counterbalancing the conventional emphasis on giving incentives to innovators by enabling them to appropriate economic rents on new knowledge. Technology and innovation policy should, therefore, be directed to providing potential innovators with timely and easy access to relevant knowledge bases.