The Views of the Aeronautical Research Establishments on THE FIFTH RTD - FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME
4. AEREA View on Aeronautical issues in 5th Framework Programme - 2
|4.2 Aeronautical RTD for public policy issues |
|4.2.1 Right from the start of civil air transport, public authorities were involved. The governmental responsibilities today cover: |
- (air) transport policy
- (air) traffic and airport management
- safety regulation, also related to aging aircraft
- sustainable environment policy.
The resulting policy guidelines, rules and regulations should be based on a strong technological knowledge base. In view of their independent position and their broad knowledge-base and facilities , the AEREA-members are the natural partners of governments in providing the underlying knowledge-base required.
|4.2.2 (Air) Transport policy research |
The RTD support activities should be linked to the strategic- and intermodal transport initiatives of the European Commission. In future, sustainable mobility will mean that the air transport mode will be better interconnected to other transport modes, creating intermodal transport chains for passengers and freight.
AEREA will support the European public authorities by RTD in a number of areas like:
- Studies to predict the demand for air transport , also in view of modal mix possibilities.
- Understanding the needs of (air) transport users and identifying potential technological opportunities to satisfy future user requirements.
- Assessing the consequences of the application of multi modal standards for equipment.
- Evaluating the potential application of air traffic information-, telematics- and space based navigation technologies in other modes of transport.
- Assessing the consequences of the use of future air transport vehicles (very large aircraft, rotor craft, tilt rotor craft, SST) on the total intermodal transport chain and the ground infrastructure.
- Understanding the requirements of the future air transport market on the roles of service providers and regulatory bodies.
|4.2.3 Air Traffic and Airport Management research and technology demonstration |
With respect to RTD for the European ATM system, AEREA sees the following key issues;
- The operational concept for EATMS: In order to accommodate the required doubling of the ATM capacity in the next 10-15 years, an ATM target concept has to be adopted. This concept should be complementary and interoperable with the US "free flight" concept, but tailored to the European scene. It should fit the institutional management set up, and have the potential of application outside Europe. The concept should result in affordable acquisition and operating costs, both for the airlines and the service providers and lead to a substantial reduction in ATC-charges. Furthermore, the ATM-concepts should benefit not only capacity and efficiency, but also safety and environmental sustainability . Studies are needed to investigate different scenarios and different potential approaches, and to show that the final concept can cope with all potential failure conditions and emergencies.
- Integration and demonstration : RTD-projects in the 4th Framework programme have determined the user- and functional requirements and developed the technological components of future ATM systems. In close collaboration between Eurocontrol, Memberstates, Airlines, the aerospace industry and AEREA, the 5th Framework programme should concentrate on validation and demonstration, in line with the above mentioned target ATM concept.
- Long term RTD issues : Attention should be given to longer term issues, for example:
- Increased air-ground integration, including the airline operational issues.
- Additional research in view of the future traffic mix (aircraft equipped with older and new on board equipment, different vehicle speed etc.).
- Safety analysis of the ATM system based on novel techniques.
- Furthermore, the transition phase towards a future system needs sufficient attention. Specific attention should be given to the user acceptability, performance monitoring techniques, certification issues as well as institutional questions.
As part of the demonstration phase, considerable efforts have to be spent on upgrading, harmonizing and interlinking the elaborate simulation facilities within AEREA and Eurocontrol (PHARE).
In view of the required doubling of European airport capacity in the next 10-15 years and the limited possibilities to create additional runways, new concepts and procedures have to be developed, requiring the application of innovative technologies. The integration of new airplanes like very large aircraft and SSTs as well as advanced rotorcraft into airport operations has to be addressed.
AEREA has identified the following key issues:
- AMGCMS demonstration : During the 4th Framework programme, technology tools were developed which now have to be integrated and improved through large scale demonstrations. These will rely heavily on adequate simulation techniques in order to avoid interference with the actual airport operations. The AMGCMS simulation will have to be integrated into a total airport simulator, creating the "virtual airport". This could be achieved by linking European simulation facilities to simulate the integrated airport approach.
- Integrated airport approach , to ensure that total integration of ATM and ground movement planning and control is achieved.
- Airport and terminal lay out should be improved, not only to accommodate the expected growth in traffic but also new airplanes and rotorcraft. By using a system approach to the airport, the total flow of passengers and freight can be optimized on both the land- and the airside.
- Airports are to be regarded as a connecting point of an intermodal transport chain.
|4.2.4 Safety regulations |
AEREA has identified four areas of pre-regulatory research that should be incorporated in the next Framework programme in view of subsidiarity
Cost benefit analysis on safety regulation :
- creation of an accessible European database on aviation incidents and accidents. The Commission has taken initiatives to create the mechanism needed for the collection of reports. As independent institutions, the AEREA members are in a perfect position to analyze the data and subtract relevant information for future policy initiatives by the European Commission and JAA.
- continued research into the root causes of incidents and accidents . Under APAS '94 a first analysis was made, that should be followed by further research to establish the relative weight of critical factors contributing to air traffic incidents and accidents.
- cost-benefit analysis on safety. The analysis will provide guidelines for regulators on the cost-effectiveness of current and future regulation.
Regulation related to the vehicle and ATM system : Topics to be addressed in the next Framework programme on pre-regulatory research should include:
- structural integrity of air- and rotorcraft and explosion hardening : Regulatory issues related to aging aircraft, quality control, acoustic fatigue, composite structure (repair), fatigue substantiation, dynamic qualification of airframe components and crashworthiness. Increased survivability through energy absorbing design of aircraft and helicopters as well as occupant survivability and cabin safety need additional pre-regulatory research.
- Engine integrity issues : Issues related to the applicability of current regulation to modern engines in order to maximize the service life of engine components, to regulation for new engine materials and to integrated flight/engine control systems.
- Avionics : New avionics systems are being introduced for which no certification procedures exist. Improved standards for the life cycle of avionics hard- and software are also needed.
- Safety standards for ATM systems : As new ATM systems and components are introduced, the impact on safety should be assessed. Currently insufficient tools and methods are available to accomplish this: evaluation methodologies and procedures have to be developed.
Regulation related to air traffic operations : Further pre-regulatory research is needed on:
- better understand the icing phenomena in view of future regulation
- wake vortex issues, especially in view of the potential introduction of very large aircraft and new rotorcraft
- EMI and other external hazards.
Furthermore, different operational standards exists for European airports in view of external safety considerations. European standards are needed to guarantee minimal risk at and fair competition between European airports.
Human factors : Human factor research covers a broad range of activities. Whilst pre-regulatory research is needed to set standards for the design of equipment and the interface with the human operator, it is also needed to improve training-standards. A close relationship to initiatives of the JAA in this area should be maintained.
Most incidents in civil aviation are related to ground handling of aircraft and - as in the air - the majority of these (costly) incidents are related to human error. Human factor research should provide a better understanding on human behaviour which will be used to design user friendly equipment for incident free operations.
|4.2.5 Sustainable environment policy |
AEREA identifies three key issues to be incorporated in the fifth Framework Programme:
- Better understanding of the environmental impact of air traffic: In the 4th Framework programme activities were started to investigate the effects of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere. Follow-on research is needed, including measurements using AEREA laboratory aircraft. Studies on the perception of aircraft noise, especially near airports, should provide a scientific basis for future regulation.
- Cost-benefit analysis of future regulation, for which an adequate methodology should be developed.
- Regulation related to air traffic , based on pre-regulatory research in topics like the optimized noise abatement departure and landing procedures and European standards for noise and pollution criteria at European airports, as well as criteria for the optimal land use planning around airports.