Growth Work Programme 2001-2002
DEVELOPMENT OF CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES
-Structures and materials application
-Systems and equipment
-ATM related airborne systems
-Accident prevention -Accident survivability
|Reducing Development Cost and Time to Market||Improving Efficiency||Improving Environment Friendliness||Improving Operational Capability and Safety|
TECHNOLOGIES INTEGRATION AND VALIDATION
1. Power-optimised aircraft
2. Friendly aircraft cabin environment
3. Advanced wing configuration
The overall aim of the key action is reflected into four priorities with corresponding technical objectives, which make up the main drivers of the European RTD action:
The quantified objectives correspond to a medium term of eight to ten years and should be regarded as guiding targets of the RTD action, taking the present state-of-the-art as the reference point. The aircraft is regarded as including its systems and components. The achievement of each objective will be the result of the combination of contributing technologies in a multidisciplinary and multisectoral activity. Research will bring together manufacturers and suppliers including SMEs, research institutes and academia, operators and regulatory authorities.
APPROACH: TWO MAJOR STRANDS
The work programme is structured in a way to optimise the benefits of European-wide RTD by recognising the need for an integrated approach. It distinguishes two major strands of work:
Research should aim at facilitating the introduction and combination of the newest technologies, including extensive use of the tools offered by ICT, able to contribute to substantial gains in time-to-market and production costs. Advanced design approaches exploiting information technologies should facilitate concurrent engineering practices in support of the design for the whole product life cycle as well as distributed inter-company design environments. Novel manufacturing and assembly processes associated to advanced materials would achieve cost reduction and production flexibility while ensuring safety requirements. Development and deployment of technologies for distributed multi-site production systems would pave the way to increased industrial partnerships and reinforced co-operation across the supply chain.
4.1.1: Advanced design systems and tools:
RTD objectives are to help reduce time-to-market by 15 to 30 % and development costs by 35% while ensuring improved response to market and society needs. RTD should address the development of concurrent engineering environments; development and validation of multi-disciplinary optimisation methods; advanced modelling and simulation tools, including virtual reality, in support of virtual prototyping, and knowledge-based systems to support design activities.
Research objectives are to help reducing manufacturing costs by 30 % while improving working conditions and organisational capacities of enterprises. RTD should address the development and validation of intelligent and flexible manufacturing methodologies in support of advanced airframe assembly concepts and cost-effective manufacturing processes for airframe, engine and equipment parts best adapted to exploit the properties of advanced materials.
4.1.3: Product quality control:
The research emphasis should be on development of specific methodologies for continuous quality/cost control measures in the design and manufacturing stages. Particular attention should be given to the supply chain aspects. RTD should address the development of new inventory/configuration control procedures to deploy across the supply chain; advanced in-process inspection and test techniques; and development of knowledge based diagnosis.
The objective of the research work is to improve aircraft Direct Operating Cost through a substantial reduction in fuel consumption while ensuring and improving safety aspects. It will be possible by the combination of technology advances: (1) to reduce drag and improve lift-to-drag ratio by improved aerodynamic designs; (2) to reduce aircraft Operating Weight Empty by increased introduction of advanced lightweight, cost-efficient structures and of power-optimised and safer, integrated flight controls, systems and equipment; (3) to improve engine efficiency with higher performance propulsion systems and propulsion controls.
Research objectives are to support reduction of aerodynamic drag by 20% in 10 years and improvement of the overall aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft in take-off, climb, cruise, approach and landing. RTD should address the development and validation of high-performance technologies, systems and support tools for drag reduction; theoretical and experimental methods for prediction and control of boundary layer behaviour; systems and technologies to enable adaptive wing concepts; computational methods and novel technologies for high-lift aerodynamics at low-speed; CFD tools and integrated design methods; advanced technologies for improved propoeller and rotor performance.
4.2.2: Structures and materials application:
Research objectives are to help reducing weight by 20% in 10 years at no extra manufacturing cost and without reduction of structural life. RTD should address the development and validation of improved theoretical tools for the simulation of structural behaviour; new structural concepts for increased use of advance materials in primary structures; tools and technologies for application of "smart materials" and realisation of "smart structures" integrating sensors-structure-control-effector.
RTD objectives are to support in 10 years fuel economy by 20% and consequently reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by the same factor, as well as to increase engine thrust-to-weight ratio by 40%. RTD should address new and improved engine cycle concepts; numerical aerothermodynamics methods for design of turbo-machinery components; application of medium and high-temperature materials; techniques and concepts in support of the design of "smart" engine control systems; improved measurement techniques in hazardous environments; technologies for improved mechanical transmission systems for rotorcraft and engines, as well as innovative concepts such as compound propulsion.
4.2.4: Systems and equipment:
Objectives are to reduce power take-up by 10% and weight by 20% of on-board systems with at least the current levels of safety, cost-effectiveness, reliability and maintainability, while meeting better functional requirements. RTD should address power generation and technologies in support of a more electric aircraft concept; low-power demanding and other advanced flight control systems; improved modelling and design methods for landing gear and braking systems; techniques for improved reliability of fuel management systems; application of fibre optics to cabin utility systems, passenger services and avionics systems; development of underlying technologies and procedures for implementation of integrated modular concepts; utilisation of multimedia passenger services; application of advanced displays and sensors in cockpit functions.
4.2.5: Configurational and interdisciplinary aspects:
Research objectives are to provide analysis capability in support of improved as well as novel aircraft configurations. RTD should address methodologies and technologies for multidisciplinary analysis of unconventional fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft configurations, such as blended-wing-body, box-shaped wings, compound helicopters, tilt-rotors, etc; multidisciplinary airframe-propulsion integration (including fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft); improved analytical tools for the prediction and technologies for the prevention of static and dynamic aeroelastic phenomena.
Considering the increasing society pressure with regard to environmental consequences of the projected growth in air traffic, aircraft size and emissions, research is needed to improve technologies for reducing engine emissions. Reduction of external noise is in addition becoming increasingly important for the growth of aircraft operations and aircraft size. It is also necessary to improve total cabin environment as a combination of physical aspects such as noise, vibration and air quality, as well as human-factor-related aspects. This research should help to ensure passenger and citizen acceptance of future vehicles.
4.3.1: Low pollutant emissions:
Research objectives are the development of combustor concepts to achieve a significant reduction of engine emissions of NOx and particulates, as well as improving knowledge of the nature and effects of emissions in support of the development of a new emissions parameter for certification as recommended by ICAO/CAEP. The specific targets for NOx reduction are: i) 80% in the LTO cycle, and ii) to an emission index of 8 gr. per kg fuel burnt in cruise/climb. RTD will address tools and technologies for low-NOx combustors; efficient combustion systems; measurement and modelling of the composition of engine exhaust gas emissions and its distribution within the jet and plume; establishment and evaluation of a global inventory of 3-D distribution of emissions; development of the technical background in support of the development of new emissions parameter covering the whole aircraft operation.
4.3.2: External noise:
RTD objectives are to reduce external perceived noise by 10 dB in 10 years through new design technologies as well as through advanced active control technologies. RTD should address prediction methods and tools for reduction of noise at the source; technologies for active noise and vibration control; modelling of the far-field noise radiation; development of the technical background in support of improved noise certification parameters and procedures; modelling of sonic boom.
4.3.3: Cabin environment:
Objectives are to improve the environmental conditions in the cabin and cockpit and enhance crew and passenger comfort. Medium term targets concerning noise levels are a reduction of 5-10 dB for turbofan aircraft and 10-15 dB for turbo-propeller and rotary wing aircraft. RTD should address advanced methods for prediction and reduction of noise and vibration in the cabin; development and validation of subjective noise and vibration criteria for cabin environments; concepts for enhanced global cabin environments; technologies for cost-efficient cabin climate control including humidification and air quality; human-centred utilisation of multimedia passenger services.
New technologies, including satellite based navigation and communications and new flight management systems, have the potential for changing significantly the way airspace is managed. To exploit this potential on-board technologies need to be developed and validated to equip the aircraft for future operational requirements. With the expected growth of air traffic and the foreseeable use of larger airliners carrying a greater number of passengers, the current accident rates must be improved so that aviation safety records continue at the highest standards. RTD work is therefore needed based in particular on an improved understanding of the causes of accidents, and of the human-machine interface aspects. Also the design of aircraft will have to incorporate the best knowledge to improve survivability in the event of accidents.
4.4.1: Air traffic management (ATM) related air borne systems:
RTD objectives are to increase airspace and airport capacity through a more autonomous operation of aircraft consistent with the future European ATM concept. RTD should address advanced on-board flight management functions optimising pilot's role and workload; integration of advanced on-board technologies in support of navigation in the approach, landing and ground movement; application and integration of on-board communication and surveillance technologies.
4.4.2: Operational Maintenance:
Objectives are to reduce maintenance costs by 25 % in the medium term and by 40% in 10 years while improving reliability of maintenance operations. RTD should address overall maintenance cost with improved maintenance systems; development of "smart" maintenance systems with self-inspection and self-repair capability; improved non-destructive test and analysis; methodologies to maintain integrity of ageing aircraft.
4.4.3: Accident prevention:
Objectives are to reduce aircraft accident rate by at least the same factor than the growth of air traffic. RTD should be centred around the development of improved aviation safety metrics; improved understanding of the human-machine interaction and crew performance in the cockpit; system design and technologies to reduce pilot workload and to improve situation awareness; application and validation of airborne technologies for in-flight and on-ground aircraft collision avoidance; methodologies and technologies for alleviation and avoidance of wake vortex formation and encounter; prediction, detection and monitoring of ice accumulation; technologies for protection against lightning and single radiation effects.
4.4.4: Accident survivability:
Objectives are to effectively reduce the number of casualties or passengers injured in case of survivable accidents. RTD should address development of prediction tools as well as design techniques and structural concepts for improved airframe behaviour in case of crash; methodologies for prediction and mitigation of fires in the aircraft.
The key action has identified Technology Platforms (TP) for technology integration and validation. Each TP would bring together a range of advanced technologies into a project representing a priority in the capability to develop future aircraft.
Already covered by the March 1999 Call, this TP is open only to Thematic Network and Concerted Action proposals, not to RTD proposals
This TP is the response to the challenge for the structural designer, particularly of the wing and fuselage of commercial aircraft, to select a cost-efficient combination of materials and structural concepts that can optimise weight while reducing development, production and operation costs. It will provide for the development, integration and validation of design and manufacturing concepts in full-scale primary structures. Principal technologies to bring around relate to: novel materials, multidisciplinary optimisation methods, manufacturing/assembling processes, simulation and numerical prediction tools, structural testing technologies, structural repair and monitoring techniques.
Already covered by the March 1999 Call, this TP is open only to Thematic Network and Concerted Action proposals, not to RTD proposals.
This TP represents the European response to the double challenge of improving the competitiveness of its aero-engine manufacturing industry and actively contributing to curbing man-made climate change related to aviation. Consequently, the RTD activity will be based on a two pronged approach. The first will be focused on proving the technical feasibility of best available component technologies in an engine with a conventional performance cycle. The second will be targeted on significant emission reductions of NOx and CO2, through the full-scale validation of an advanced engine performance cycle using an intercooled and recuperated engine core. Both approaches will be based on integration and validation of the critical technologies derived from research projects under previous Framework Programmes and newly proposed FP5 technology activities as well as from national and own industry programmes. RTD work should focus on development and integration of technologies in the following areas: aero-thermodynamics of the turbomachinery components including advanced CFD-tools, combustion including chemical kinetics, measurement techniques and cooling concepts, high temperature resistant and low weight/high strength materials, systems engineering including manufacturing techniques. The integration of technologies will contribute to an overall reduction of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions, maintenance costs and the first costs of ownership including delays and cancellations related to the aero-engine deficiencies. Due to the character of technologies at stake, the two approaches in the project might require different engine test beds.
This TP is currently closed.
This TP is the response to overcome the limitations of current rotary-wing aircraft through the tilt-rotor concept, so providing for a high speed and cost-effective Vertical Take-off and Landing capability in European commercial aviation. The overall objective is to be able to deliver a performance in hover similar to an helicopter, a cruise speed comparable to current turbo-propeller aeroplanes and lower operating costs than modern helicopters while assuring improved passenger comfort levels. The research activities will be based on the development, integration of technologies and their validation at components level and on full-scale Ground Test Articles. This feasibility proof at ground test scale will represent an essential step prior to flight demonstration, which is beyond the scope of this TP. The full scale article and comprised technologies should correspond to an aircraft with Maximum Take-off Weight in the class of 10 tons, maximum range greater than 750 Nm (1390 Km) and maximum equivalent speed greater than 300 Kts.(556 Km/h). The TP will include two alternative approaches, one with a rotor tilting mechanism and the other with rotable wing segment and rotor. Both approaches will focus on the integration and validation of essential technologies in the following areas: main rotor system including hub, blades, power transmission and tilting mechanisms, flight control system including tilt control, nacelle and, where appropriate, wing structure, aero-elastic stability and wing-nacelle integration.
Already covered by the March 1999 Call, this TP is open only to Thematic Network and Concerted Action proposals, not to RTD proposals
This activity, focused on the airborne package of the system, represents the European response to the need for transforming research results into operational ATM procedures. It will select Communication Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) airborne technologies and integrate them in an avionics platform for validation in an ATM scenario defined in line with the European initiative. Although focusing mainly on the Airborne segment, RTD should take into account the ground segment, embracing its required new functions, in the definition of the ATM scenario. In particular, it should ensure interoperability with the integration and validation platform for the ground based ATM system developed under key action 2. Validation activities, in addition to flight testing, will make maximum use of existing facilities such as flight and ATM simulators and ATC centres equipped with pre-operational or modified platforms developed in the context of Eurocontrol or other EU funded projects. Validation will be established in terms of : i) feasibility of an economical implementation of the ATM related airborne system in existing transport aircraft; ii) human-machine interface aspects and iii) certification issues.
This TP is targeted at reducing non-propulsive energy consumption in response to the need to cope more efficiently with the increased number and complexity of energy-consuming systems on board the aircraft. Efforts to optimise energy consumption of the different on board systems have tended to be focused at component rather than overall aircraft system level. Recent developments have also tended to use electrical power to replace hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical power systems.
The activity of this TP addresses the integration into aircraft system architectures of alternative power generation and utilisation technologies as well as the validation of the architecture and the systems for optimised power distribution and share. The project is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of a 25% reduction in non-propulsive peak power consumption while reducing weight and operational maintenance. The integration of the systems architecture will involve a common platform for systems simulation according to the "hardware-in-the-loop" concept as a central feature. The final proof of feasibility will be shown in aircraft representative rig tests and selected flight tests, where required. Aircraft systems under consideration will include: electrical and hydraulic power generation, conversion and distribution, power supply, propulsion, cabin environment, flight control, landing gear, anti-icing and fuel management. The project will incorporate the most advanced technologies resulting from on going or completed research projects funded under the EC framework programmes, national and industry RTD programmes.
The activity will comprise three main phases: (a) Identification of candidate systems and definition of the validation strategy; (b) Architecture optimisation based on the combined use of digital simulations and the progressive integration of individual systems in rig testing, minimising the need for extensive "iron-bird" testing; ( c) Final validation , including aircraft representative rig testing and, if required, flight tests of selected systems on an aircraft.
Already covered by the December 1999 Call, this TP is open only to Thematic Network and Concerted Action proposals, not to RTD proposals
This TP will represent a significant step to overcome one of the most important constraints limiting the future growth of air transport, which is the public reaction to external noise emitted by aircraft. During the last two decades the attention of noise reduction research has been placed mainly on the engine as the dominant noise source, resulting indeed in substantial decrease of noise levels. However further progress can only be achieved by the combination of developments in several fronts: the engine source noise, nacelle technologies, airframe-generated noise and airframe-engine installation effects on one side and flight operational procedures on the other. The activity of the TP is targeted at the integration of developments achieved in these various fronts with research undertaken under the Framework programme, national and industrial RTD programmes. The objective of the platform is to demonstrate the feasibility of reduction of perceived noise levels by at least 5 decibel through application of low-noise airframe and power plant technologies, and at least 3 decibel through low noise operational procedures, by means of ground and laboratory tests and full-scale flight tests.
This TP is the response to the recognition that the noise and vibration as well as air quality and thermal environment are fundamental factors contributing to the passenger perception of cabin comfort, especially in medium and long range flights. These factors are also important for the health of passengers and crew on board. The importance of these issues will be exacerbated with the introduction of large commercial aircraft with more powerful engines, longer flight times and multimedia passenger services. Many techniques for significantly reducing noise and vibration focused on the transmission mechanism, from the sources to the passenger, have been applied in the last years in a fragmented way with diverse degrees of success. Similarly, techniques for improving air quality and thermal environment have been approached in the recent past focusing mainly on equipment operation and on its application in general closed spaces. In addition, studies have also been conducted to define multimedia environments for aircraft cabin.
The activity of this TP is centred at proving the feasibility of achieving the target comfort levels inside the passenger and crew cabins by the integration in a multidisciplinary approach of acoustic/vibration treatments and air distribution design solutions, while respecting overall cost and weight objectives and enabling user-friendly application of multimedia services. The project will incorporate technologies developed from research carried out under the EU Framework programme, as well as national and industry funded programmes. In particular, it will include the following: (i) multidisciplinary structural optimisation including transmission loss criteria, active and passive structure vibration treatments, active and passive wide band noise reduction techniques for engine and aerodynamic sources, advanced damping treatments for fuselage skin including active skins, smart foams and low-weigh absorbent acoustic materials, advanced trim panel design integrating vibro-acoustic, environmental and material requirements, noise reduction techniques for air-condition systems, multimedia systems applications for noise environment reduction and improved comfort; (ii) new air conditioning features to reduce air contaminants such as dust, bacteria/viruses, CO2, CO, Ozone, as well as thermal-hygrometrical comfort including temperature, humidity, air flow speed and cabin pressure. The project will demonstrate a reduction in both overall sound pressure level and speech interference level of 5 decibels, as well as an improvement in applicable air quality comfort indexes of 20% in commercial turbofan aircraft cabins by means of full-scale flight tests supported with ground and laboratory testing. The project will include the application of a novel comfort index to take into account noise and air quality factors of comfort.
The project will comprise the following three main phases: (a) Identification and selection of viable technologies for large-scale validation; (b) Integration of technologies in an aircraft design, including optimisation and validation in laboratory, mock-up or on-ground aircraft tests; (c) Full-scale validation of design methodologies, including flight tests performed on a turbofan aircraft test bed.
Today's commercial transport aircraft present wing configurations fully adapted to traditional technologies developed in the last decades. Since then several technological improvements have reached a level of maturity in the domains of aerodynamics, flight control systems, structures, multidisciplinary analysis, etc. which will enable designers to approach the integration of this technologies into novel wing configurations that will represent a significant increase in aircraft operational efficiency.
The activity of this TP is centred on the multidisciplinary integration and validation of promising technologies, such as: (i) adaptive wing concepts through multifunctional control surfaces, (ii) large blended winglets and other novel wingtip devices, and (iii) active and passive wake vortex control devices. These technologies can independently bring substantial advantage in terms of wing performance. Furthermore, as they are strongly interrelated, their benefits will be optimised through integration. The Platform will demonstrate significant improvements in take-off and climb performance (7% increase in L/D), drag reduction by optimised wing lift distribution throughout the entire flight as well as gust and manoeuvre loads alleviation (mission fuel burn reduction of 5%), lower aerodynamic noise during landing and take-off (2 EPNdB reduction) and wake vortex strength reduction thereby improving airport runway capacity. The project will incorporate concepts and technologies developed in research carried out under Community, national and industry programmes in the fields of aerodynamics, stability and control, aeroelasticity, composite and metallic structures, flight test measurement methodologies, etc. Full scale flight test validation of each of the technology elements of the Platform will be conducted on suitable test aircraft and, where technically required, on the same aeroplane during a common flight test campaign.
The project will present three phases: (a) Configuration definition and integration , where the comprised technologies will be integrated taking into account aspects of overall architecture, environmental, safety and certification issues; (b) Ground test validation , where systems and assemblies will be validated at component or system level in wind tunnels and ground test facilities, as appropriate; (c) Full scale flight test validation .
Already covered by the December 1999 Call, this TP is open only to Thematic Network and Concerted Action proposals, not to RTD proposals
This TP will represent the response of the European aircraft integrators and avionics suppliers to the necessity to obtain cost-efficient, performant overall avionics architectures through an increased modularity and integration of avionics components. The formidable advances experienced in electronics technologies have caused the expansion of the range of their aeronautical applications as well as the increase in the number of avionics systems on board an aircraft. However, the development of the different electronic systems has tended to be done on an individual basis, focusing only on the fulfilment of their specific functionality, and so hampering modularity and integration. The TP will validate the feasibility of an integrated and modular avionics architecture able to perform all the required functionalities of its components satisfying both criteria of reliability and cost effectiveness. The objectives are reducing overall avionics system weight, volume and power consumption by 30%, while decreasing its development time and cost of ownership. It will represent also a decisive contribution to the evolution of international on-board electronics standards, particularly related to avionics packaging and integration, high-speed data buses, software reusability and flexibility and tools to measure compliance with required functions. The project will incorporate procedures, hardware and software technologies developed under the EU framework -especially the NEVADA project- as well as national and industrial RTD programmes.
All research objectives will be open for Thematic Network and Concerted Action proposals.
For RTD, demonstration and combined projects:
The call will be closed for RTD, demonstration and combined project proposals, but all research objectives will be open for Thematic Network and Concerted Action proposals.
Where appropriate and within the priorities covered by each call, applicants are encouraged to extensively use the tools offered by ICT, ranging from the creation of websites, intranets and extranets to the digital collaboration, sharing/accessing remote databases, and grid concept as a new infrastructure for handling, computing and solving complex applications. Examples of applications are CFD, aerodynamics, windtunnel testing, inflight testing, modelling and simulations, safety assessment, structural science.
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