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  • Publications and Patents in Nanotechnology: An overview of previous studies and the state of the art

    Angela Hullmann, European Commission, and Martin Meyer, K.U. Leuven

    In: Scientometrics, Volume 58, Number 3, 2003, pp. 507-527 .

    Nanotechnology and the sciences that are associated with it have attracted much attention. Experts from various fields believe that nanotechnology will be one of the key technologies affecting almost every aspect of the economy. While there are considerable efforts underway that aim to commercialise nanotechnology - carried by start-up companies as well as large internationally operating firms -, most of the activity seems to focus on research and development activities. There have been a number of technology studies and investment reports that describe the opportunities associated with this emerging area. Over the years there have also been a number of bibliometric and patent studies that examined the field. This paper provides an overview of measuring nanotechnology with commonly used indicators of bibliometric and patent analyses.

  • Forecasting the development of nanotechnology with the help of science and technology indicators

    Ramón Compañó and Angela Hullmann, European Commission

    In: Nanotechnology, Volume 13, Number 3, June 2002, pp. 243-247.

    Nanotechnology is supposed to become one of the key enabling technologies of the 21st century. Its economical potential is forecasted to be a market of several hundred billion Euros in the next decade. Therefore, nanotechnology has attracted the interest of many industry sectors and many companies redirecting internal activities to prepare themselves for this new challenge. At the same time governmental R&D decision makers all over the world are setting up new nanotechnology-specific research programmes aiming at putting their respective countries in a favourable position for the future. The aim of this article is to use scientific and technological indicators to make predictions on the economical development and to compare the situation in different countries.

  • Restructuring the innovation capacity of the business sector in Estonia - Business Survey Results

    Marianne Paasi, European Commission

    In : The Economics of Transition, 1/2000, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 175-195

    The growth prospects of the Estonian economy depend on transforming the former "socialist" industrial R&D into competitive business-sector innovation activities, establishing interactions between firms and other research units, and accelerating international diffusion. An additional task, specific for a transition country, is intensive utilisation of the inherited human capital. The results of a business survey conducted in Tallinn in the summer of 1996 indicate that favourable re-structuring of industrial R&D and the development of new innovative activities are indeed taking place. The results of a regression model indicate, however, that while the results seem to be mostly positive, detailed support for further re-structuring is needed. Firstly, further qualitative changes seem to be necessary in the state-owned and privatised electronics firms. Secondly, newly emerging firms need easier access to the capital market and management expertise. (JEL 030, P30, P31)

  • Efficiency of the innovation systems in the transition countries

    Marianne Paasi, European Commission

    In: Economic Systems, Vol. 22, No.3, Sept. 1998, pp. 217-234

    The paper compares the efficiency of innovation systems in the transition countries with those of the market economies. Efficiency is understood as the ability to transform R&D inputs into economic growth, as measured by the contribution of R&D investment to GDP. The hypothesis that the efficiency of the innovation systems in the transition countries is lower is tested by a regression model, in which GDP depends on the R&D. The expected differences in the efficiency parameters are tested by country group dummies, which reflect the impact of unobservable variables on institutional structures and interactions within the innovation systems. The lower efficiency coefficients of transition countries in comparison to the low and medium income market economies are explained by two factors. Firstly, intramural business sector R&D still plays a role which is too insignificant. Secondly, interaction mechanisms and diffusion within the transition countries and with other countries are not yet sufficiently developed. (JEL 010, 030, P51)

  • The Emergence of Innovative Firms in Estonia

    Marianne Paasi, European Commission

    In: Meske,W./Mosoni-Fried,J./Ezkowitz,H./Nesvetailov,G. (eds.), Transforming Science and Technology Systems - the Endless Transition? IOS Press/Nato Scientific Affairs Division, Amsterdam, 1998, pp. 211-221

    This paper analyses the process of re-structuring of industrial R&D in Estonia by studying the R&D and training investment of firms and the changing interactions between the research institutes and business. The empirical data is provided by a business survey in Estonia conducted in 1996 for the electromechanical and electronics industry, foodstuff industry and R&D intensive services. The sample results indicate that favourable re-structuring of industrial R&D is taking place both in terms of research, development and training investment of firms and in terms of establishment of new types of interactions between business and the research institutes. In addition, international research connections abroad are becoming more important.


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