Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

Innovation, Technology Transfer and Automation Systems in Albania

Contributed by: Orion Zavalani et al., Polytechnic University of Tirana

Science, technology and innovation are essential at all stages of development. There is a close correlation between technological change and development. Despite great advantages of such technologies and the fact that nowadays these techs are becoming less expensive; the market in Albania is still conservative.
1. INTRODUCTION
Science, technology and innovation are important at all stages of economic growth and development of a country. For some researchers economic growth implies increased per capita value-added while the concept development implies more, i.e., economic growth plus institutional, social, cultural and technological changes [1,2,3].

There is a close correlation between technological change and development [1]. Technology is the knowledge that changes and controls our environment [1,4]. New technologies which have the attribute to control and to change the environment indirectly induce also socio-economic change. One of the most recent and extreme example is the widespread application of computers and Internet. Developments in information technologies did not only make communication easier, generated new employment opportunities, opened up new markets but also raised social and political expectations.

Invention-innovation process of a new technology is a rather costly and risky process which is predominantly undertaken and/or controlled by globally operating enterprises [5]. A new technology requires the engagement of highly skilled human labour as well as financial resources, given the appropriate technological, organizational, institutional and cultural infrastructure. The determinant objective of an investor to engage in such a costly and risky process is to obtain the maximum compensation (return on investment) in a viable time for money return. To achieve this goal, the new technology must be able to make the owner more competitive and profitable either in terms of lower unit costs by introducing a "new production method" for a "given" product or by introducing “new products and production methods" [4].

Economic performance of different countries in the world indicates a wide disparity in economic development and a big gap in innovation and technology modernization between the developed and developing countries [6].
Developing countries have difficulties to expand their potentials toward modernization, know-how and innovation due to high costs and competition that comes from developed countries. For this reason, developing countries are considering technology transfer as the most feasible solution for country development and modernization and as a first step toward development of innovation sector [6]. The channels of technology transfer can be classified in three groups [7]:

1) Transfer of Informative Knowledge;
2) Transfer of Products;
3) Transfer of Production Methods.

2. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION
The Albania country response toward the development of technology and innovation has not been in the proportion with the country objective for being member of European Union. Production sector composition is heavily skewed towards traditional low-technology activities, based on labour costs rather than high value-added products or services, and competitiveness remains low generally [8,9]

Please find the full version at:
http://ijtir.hctl.org/vol14/IJTIArticle_201504004.pdf

Contributor

Organisation

    Orion Zavalani et al., Polytechnic University of Tirana
    Sheshi "Nene Tereza"
    1000 Tirana
    Albania

Contact

Related information

Countries

  • Albania

Keywords

Automatic systems, Efficiency, Intelligent control, Innovation, Technology transfer
Record Number: 130456 / Last updated on: 2016-01-28
Category: Policy making and guidelines
Provider: WIRE
Revision: 0