FCH-02.2-2015 - Improved electrolysis for Distributed Hydrogen production
Proposal must address the following objectives:
- Development of electrolysers from 100 to 500 kW to provide grid services. Fact based assessment of specifications, supported by experimental evidences (i.e. from existing facilities, especially interaction with the grid and renewable electricity sources), is highly valuable
- System and component optimization for partial load operation, from 20% (with a minimum efficiency of 50%) to 120%
- System and component optimization for highly dynamic operation
- ramp-up rates of less than 2 seconds going from 20% to 100% of nominal power,
- warm start-up
- cold start-up
- standby behaviour, i.e. maximum of 5% of nominal power in standby mode
- Control system designed to enhance interaction with the grid and renewable sources
Proposals could address the additional following objectives:
- System engineering and improvements in manufacturing process for decreasing costs down to 3.7M€/tpd, contributing to system simplification, cost reduction, material use minimisation or that put in place a path to volume manufacturing
- Technology to be tested in the field for at least 6 months to validate the development achieved. The method utilized should be illustrated in the proposal
- Address business cases and applications where the Distributed Hydrogen Production may have a significant impact
- As reported in the MAWP, target KPIs on cost per nominal power for alkaline and PEM electrolysers will be considered
- Contribution to achieve KPIs of the “Electrolysis Study” from FCH 2 JU, decreasing electricity consumption to 52 kWh/kg H2 for alkaline electrolysers and 48 kWh/kg H2 for PEM electrolysers, and capital cost to 630 EUR/kW for alkaline electrolysers and 1,000 EUR/kW for PEM electrolysers)
- Setting up innovative solutions and configurations for grid and renewable energy integration, implemented of control systems fully adapted to provide grid services
- Involvement of policy makers to develop regulations for grid services provided by electrolysers in the EU member states
Implemented energy policies have the objective of producing 65% of electricity from renewable energy sources by 2050, and of reducing emissions of CO2 linked to energy production by 50%.
The rapid deployment of wind power and solar energy sources contribute to reducing the carbon footprint of the electricity grid. However, wind power and solar energy are resources dependent on meteorological conditions and their instability poses a number of problems for functioning of the electrical grid, in terms of stabilisation mechanisms, regulation and offsetting. The bottlenecks in the electricity supply system result from an excess of renewable energy which cannot be transferred to the grid and that is consequently curtailed by the operators of the supply grid, in order to balance the power produced and demand for energy and/or to permit the allocation of electricity deriving from other sources
Considerable investments in transport and distribution infrastructure will be necessary in the forthcoming years. In its global energy prospects, the International Energy Agency forecasts that total investments in transport and distribution (T&D) infrastructure will amount to US$ 6.817 billion during the period 2014-2035.
The postponement over time of transport and distribution infrastructure is possible by using storage resources to absorb power exceeding the capacity of a T&D line and returning it at a subsequent point, when the available T&D capacities permit. The upgrading of T&D resources generally translates into high fixed costs, while relatively limited storage resources allow a delay in (or even avoidance of) the investments which would otherwise be necessary.
Hydrogen can play a significant role for the support to the electricity grid, for peak shifting and demand response.
Current electrolysers are designed for high efficiency at their operating design point, at typically close to 100% load, and to run continuously. Providing energy services is expected to require start-stop and dynamic operation and high efficiency across much of the load curve. The electrolyser would have to follow the variable generation profile of renewable sources locally available and be adapted to the intermittent profile of electricity supply. It could be used also as an energy system able to maximize the energy self-consumption of entire districts in a municipal area or industry park, relying as much as possible on renewable sources locally available, while being grid connected for security of supply.