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A novel Water Pinch methodology was developed by UMIST to decrease the number of heat transfer units based on separate system generation and non-isothermal stream mixing.

Also, a new tool to design a system for simultaneous water and energy minimisation was developed - Two-dimensional Grid Diagram. A new method of dealing with interactions between energy and water minimisation and the subsequent trade-offs was introduced. Issues of design of a water system for maximum energy recovery and minimum number of heat transfer units have also been addressed. Two different energy recovery systems have been analysed: direct and indirect, and three different schemes been compared: no mixing water streams for heat transfer, isothermal stream mixing and non-isothermal stream mixing. Isothermal stream mixing gives the opportunity to reduce the complexity of stream distribution, and realise better structure and size for HEN without any penalty in energy consumption.

UMIST developed in close collaboration with the project partners the prototype software. New techniques were implemented in order to combine the two existing methodologies in software, and provide a flexible and imaginative user interface. The software was structured and highly interactive, and provides results in an easy, unambiguous, methodological form. Practical refinement of the how the technology is exposed in a re-usable format through generic software implementation is critical to project application.

A combination of simulation with the pinch-based methods has been chosen as a feasible solution for the main design work including especially the allocation of water flows, ie the water circulation arrangements in the mill considering also the water purification and energy aspects of the system. Software has been developed for the combined, iterative problem of simulation and pinch design eg for a combination of different basic software packages. Three case studies have been made as a test of the meth

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