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Since the 1980s drainage from many Italian lakes (Garda, Varese, Bracciano, Iseo) has been monitored and water treatment systems have been set up. The results of this action were however disappointing; expected improvements in the quality of the water were not achieved. Various experimental techniques are proposed to accelerate this process of recovery:- 1. Artificial airing with air or with pure oxygen 2. Pumping the deeper (hypolimnic) waters of the effluent from the lakes 3. Dredging the mud up from the lake beds 4. Injecting chemical reagents into the lakes (Lime, aluminium salts) or into the mud (nitrates) 5. Introducing allochthonous species of fish and managing the various biomasses as in an experimental laboratory (biomanipulation). Considering the dearth of technical or scientific reference data with which to make a choice and evaluate its effectiveness, a dossier has been prepared which summarises international experiences in the field and in which the positive, negative, technical and economic aspects of all the systems proposed so far have been evaluated and judgments have been made on the possibility of applying these systems to the various cases in Italy.

Additional information

Authors: BRUNETTI F, Politecnico di Milano (IT);VISMARA R, Politecnico di Milano (IT);CHIAUDANI G, Università degli Studi di Milano (IT);PERMAZZI G, JRC Ispra Estab. (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Ingegneria Ambientale, No. 9 (1989) pp 3-103
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