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The vacuum requirements of fusion devices differ in many aspects from those of ultra-high vacuum systems. This paper indicates the resulting consequences for the choice of wall and configuration. The plasma-facing surfaces should consist of one single material, otherwise the transport of impurity atoms between components negatively affects the plasma behaviour. Atomic hydrogen from the plasma reacts with the film of oxides and carbon which initially covers the stainless steel or Inconel walls. Water and hydrocarbons, i.e. O and C impurities, result. Wall conditioning techniques developed to remove this film are described. However, the surface thereafter releases many metal atoms when auxiliary heating is applied to the plasma. A solution has been to use graphite where high particle fluxes impinge and to cover the other plasma-facing surfaces with a thin film of hydrogen-rich amorphous carbon (a-C:H) ('carbonisation'). A recent further improvement in TEXTOR has resulted from the addition of boron to the carbon in the film. The success of 'boronisation' may be partly due to the formation of a thin boron-rich film in non-bakable portholes.

Additional information

Authors: WAELBROECK F, Kernforschungsanlage Jülich GmbH, Jülich (DE)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Vacuum, Vol. 39 (1989) No. 7, pp. 821-834
Record Number: 199010423 / Last updated on: 1994-12-01
Original language: en
Available languages: en