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  • The development of cryo-grinding equipment for the transformation of large quantities of biological reference materials with low heavy metal contents


Conventional devices used for crushing or grinding large quantities (up to 200 kg) of biological reference materials to be certified for trace metals can cause severe and heterogeneous contaminations by metals, as well as losses of trace elements by excessive heat generation. In such cases, cryogenic processing and homogenisation is a useful technique, but in general it has been used only for relatively small quantities. This paper describes the development of equipment with a production capacity of 3kg/h, and its use for the production of a BCR codfish reference material. This equipment consists of a laboratory jaw crusher for the precrushing step and a modified commercial planetary mill for final grinding to a particle size less than 125 microns.

Additional information

Authors: KRAMER G N, JRC Geel (BE);PAUWELS J, JRC Geel (BE)
Bibliographic Reference: Paper presented: Fourth International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Reference Materials, Orlando, Florida (US), Feb. 5-8, 1990
Availability: Available from (1) as Paper EN 35239 ORA
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