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  • Trace element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of the European Community I. A study of 46 elements in urine, blood and serum of Italian subjects


Neutron activation analysis-electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETA-AAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were used for the determination of 46 elements in urine, 35 in blood and 26 in serum of unexposed Italian subjects living in Lombardy. The results allow the proposal of reference values for various elements determined in more than 350 healthy subjects, these being Ag, Al, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, Zn, in urine; Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Tl, Zn in blood; and Ag, Al, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, V, Zn in serum (or plasma). For all other elements indicative values are suggested. In addition to the mean value and the "reference range", a "range of uncertainty" and an upper limit above which metabolic abnormalities could be expected are also defined on the basis of simple statistical considerations.

Additional information

Authors: MINOIA C, Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, Pavia (IT);POZZOLI L, Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, Pavia (IT);SABBIONI E, JRC Ispra (IT);PIETRA R, JRC Ispra (IT);NICOLAOU G, JRC Ispra (IT);APOSTOLI P, University of Brescia, Brescia (IT);ALESSIO L, University of Brescia, Brescia (IT);GALLORINI M, CNR, Pavia (IT);CAPODAGLIO E, University of Pavia, Pavia (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 95 (1990) pp. 89-105
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