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The research focussed on the development of active iron-based catalysts for the hydrogenative upgrading of heavy feedstocks, ranging from petroleum derived residues and coal derived oils up to bituminous coal. Two fixed bed reactors were operated for gas phase conversion studies and a stirred autoclave for liquid phase conversion. The main objective was to evaluate specific catalyst functions by means of detailed investigations of selectivity and the corresponding reaction mechanism. Fe-based catalysts, compared to conventional Mo- and W-based ones, show a lower activity, for hydrogenation in particular, and higher activation energies for hydrogenation steps. Fe/C catalysts are active for HDS in particular, while Fe/Al(2)O(3) catalysts show an enhanced activity for HDN. Alumina and alkali are found to act as promotors for HDN and hydrogenation respectively. H-shuttle solvent hydrogenation and degradation by Fe-based and conventional catalysts were studied. A kinetic model was developed to clarify the relationship between the H-shuttle solvent and the heavy substrate.

Additional information

Authors: SCHULZ H, Universität Karlsruhe, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Karlsruhe (DE);BÖHRINGER W, Universität Karlsruhe, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Karlsruhe (DE);ERICH E, Universität Karlsruhe, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Karlsruhe (DE);HELLGARDT K ET AL., Universität Karlsruhe, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Karlsruhe (DE);BOHRINGER W, Universitat Karlsruhe, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Karlsruhe (DE)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 13680 EN (1991) 400 pp., MF, ECU 20
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