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In the past, science was an activity in constant progress, moving steadily towards the achievement of certainty of knowledge and control over nature. Nowadays, science is a human activity, made public and forced to deal with uncertainty of knowledge and the ethical implications of its activities, such as, for example, biotechnology. The data available often consist of expert opinions, but by whom, and on the basis of what criteria, are the experts chosen? How can their contrasting opinions be reconciled? In the field of ecology, uncertainty is a positive factor because it encourages international cooperation. In order to face the decision-making challenges of the future, stable structures must be set up which give powers to the social partners, both individual and collective.

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Authors: DE MARCHI B, JRC Ispra (IT);FUNTOWICZ S O, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Sistemaricerca, Vol. 22 (1991) pp. 19-23
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