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This paper covers both structural and morphological characterisation. Divided into two parts, the first contains a short summary of the basic principles of diffraction; Bragg's law and intensity determination of diffraction lines. Evaluation methods of powder diffraction patterns and the influence of grain size and strain on the diffraction line widths are then described. X-ray diffractometer techniques, in particular Bragg-Brentano and Seemann-Bohlin types, and also the glancing angle X-ray diffractometer, are discussed. Finally the unique features of neutron diffraction techniques are mentioned. The second part contains a description of the principles of scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Several application examples are given. Special consideration is made of the various modes of TEM microscopy; bright and dark field imaging, out of focus imaging and selected area diffraction.

Additional information

Authors: GISSLER W, JRC Ispra (IT);HAUPT J, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Paper presented: Eurocourse on Advanced Techniques for Surface Engineering, Ispra (IT), November 10-13, 1992
Availability: Available from (1) as Paper EN 37119 ORA
Record Number: 199211130 / Last updated on: 1994-11-29
Original language: en
Available languages: en
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