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The effect of calcium on the weldability of austenitic and ferritic steels has been studied by carrying out welding trials, surface tension measurements and physical modelling experiments. The principal effect of calcium in the steel is to reduce the soluble sulphur content; both together affect weldability. A simple rule is proposed for estimating the soluble sulphur concentration (S). It is shown that the critical point where the temperature dependence of the surface tension becomes zero occurs when S = 40 ppm. Radially-inward surface flows and good weld penetration are obtained when the S in the steel is greater than 40 ppm and radially-outward surface flows and poor penetration when S is less than 40 ppm. Support for the Heiple-Roper theory was obtained in physical modelling experiments and the establishment of a linear relationship between penetration (i.e. depth/width ratio) and temperature dependence of surface tension.

Additional information

Authors: MILLS K C, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (GB);BROOKS R F, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (GB);SHIRALI A A, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (GB)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 13962 EN (1993) 72 pp., FS, ECU 9
Availability: (2)
ISBN: ISBN 92-826-4290-9
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