Evidence of hot spot formation on carbon limiters due to thermal electron emission
Carbon test limiters have been exposed in TEXTOR to high heat loads up to about 30 MW/m2. The evolutions of the surface temperature distribution and of the carbon release have been observed by means of local diagnostics. A sudden acceleration of the rise of the surface temperature has been found at a critical temperature of approximately 2400 C. The increase of the rate of the temperature rise is consistent with an enhancement of the power loading by a factor of 2.5-3. Following the temperature jump, a quasi-equilibrium temperature establishes at approximately 2700 C. The development of this hot spot is explained by an increase of the local power loading due to the breakdown of the sheath potential by thermal emission of electrons from the carbon surface. Simultaneously with the appearance of the hot spot, the carbon release from the surface increases sharply. This increase can be explained by normal thermal sublimation. Sublimation cooling contributes to the establishment of the quasi-equilibrium temperature at about 2700 C.
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 33 (1993) No. 6, pp. 953-961
Record Number: 199311251 / Last updated on: 1994-11-29
Original language: en
Available languages: en