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In response to the challenges of policy issues of risk and the environment, a new type of science, post-normal science, is emerging. This is analysed in contrast to traditional problem-solving strategies, including core science, applied science, and professional consultancy. The two attributes of systems uncertainties and decision stakes are used to distinguish the strategies from each other. Post-normal science is appropriate when either attribute is high, when the traditional methodologies are ineffective. In these circumstances, the quality assurance of scientific inputs to the policy process requires an extended peer community, consisting of all those with a stake in the dialogue on the issue. Post-normal science can provide a path to the democratisation of science, and also a response to the current tendencies of post-modernity.

Additional information

Authors: FUNTOWICZ S O, JRC Ispra (IT);RAVETZ J, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Futures September 1993, pp. 739-755
Record Number: 199311613 / Last updated on: 1994-11-28
Original language: en
Available languages: en
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