Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS


The origins of the concept of replacement alternatives in the 1950s, and the impact of changes in the 1960s and 1970s, resulting in stricter controls on animal experimentation from the 1980s are reviewed. The range of replacement alternative methods and some of the ethical issues they raise are discussed. Progress towards their incorporation into fundamental and applied research, education and, in particular, toxicity testing is outlined. It is concluded that greater effort should be put into overcoming barriers to the acceptance of replacement alternatives. Particular emphasis is placed on the need to ensure that the validation of non-animal tests is conducted fairly and objectively. Finally the role of ECVAM in the promotion of valid replacement alternatives and the opportunities afforded by the Sixth Amendment to the European Commission Cosmetics Directive are discussed.

Additional information

Authors: BALLS M, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Paper presented: Developments in Laboratory Animal Science, Utrecht (NL), September 24, 1993
Availability: Available from (1) as Paper EN 38080 ORA
Record Number: 199410186 / Last updated on: 1994-11-28
Original language: en
Available languages: en