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Solar thermal energy is rarely used in isolated places in mountain areas because the forced circulation systems need electrical energy and maintenance, and the thermosyphon systems are not compatible with frost. This innovative system does not have these drawbacks and also extends the field of application of solar thermal energy to isolated places in mountain areas. Plants of this type are now in operation in alpine refuges for water production, for heating domestic water and for activating the biological treatment of discharges.

Additional information

Authors: DE BENI G, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Paper presented: L'energia solare termica - Vantaggi economici ed ecologici nelle regioni montane, Cogne (IT), April 16, 1994
Availability: Available from (1) as Paper IT 38293 ORA
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