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The f-N curves for highly flammable gases, defined here as LPG (liquefied petroleum gases), propane, butane, propene, butene and isobutane, were studied for accidents in the following activity sectors: fixed installations; road, rail and pipeline transport; and loading/unloading. The f-N curves for the sectors were very similar, except for loading/unloading accidents which may have different accident escalation patterns. A comparison with regard to evolution in time was made and no significant differences were found. The study is based on 159 accidents. A comparison between f-N curves for ammonia (45 accidents) and for chlorine (39 accidents) was made and the resulting f-N curves were very similar. The data were therefore pooled to give an f-N curve for these gases. An f-N curve was also produced for accidents with highly flammable gases resulting in a boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). A comparison between the f-N curves for highly flammable gases divided into BLEVE and no-BLEVE accidents and the f-N curve for toxic gases was made. The BLEVE curve seemed significantly different from the two others. The f-N curve for toxic gases is somewhat curved as opposed to the f-N curve for accidents involving highly flammable gases without BLEVE, which can be approximated by a straight line.

Additional information

Bibliographic Reference: Article: Trans IChemE, Vol. 72 (1994) pp. 205-210
Record Number: 199510554 / Last updated on: 1995-04-21
Original language: en
Available languages: en