Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS


Past and recent activities pertaining to the implementation of the Three Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement alternatives) of Russell & Burch are outlined. The workshop participants unanimously reaffirmed the principles put forward by Russell and Burch, that human science is good science and that this is best achieved by vigorous application of the Three Rs. Thus, the only acceptable animal experiment is one which uses the smallest possible number of animals and causes the least possible pain or distress which is consistent with the achievement of a justifiable scientific purpose, and which is necessary because there is no other way of achieving that purpose. Any proposed experiments on animals should be subjected to prior and effective expert review by an ethics committee or an equivalent body. The Three Rs should be seen as a challenge and as an opportunity for reaping benefits of every kind - scientific, economic and humanitarian - not as a threat.

Additional information

Authors: BALLS M, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, Vol. 23 (1995), pp. 744-745
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