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Alternatives to animal experiments are discussed in terms of the Three Rs - reduction, refinement, and replacement. In particular, details of the following are provided: in vitro techniques; use of lower species; immunological techniques; structure activity relationship analysis; mathematical modelling of physiological processes; and human models. The use of alternative methods in education is also briefly described.

Additional information

Authors: NAB J, Utrecht University (NL);BALLS M, JRC Ispra (IT);HENDRIKSEN C, RIVM, Bilthoven (NL)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Grundlagen der Versuchstierkunde (1995), pp. 287-299
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