Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS


This paper outlines the various types of alternative methods which are being developed and evaluated as possible replacements for studies which use living vertebrates: physicochemical techniques; mathematical and computer modelling; use of bacteria and other lower organisms; the use of in vitro methods; and human studies.

Additional information

Authors: BALLS M, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Paper presented: Animals in Science Conference Clayton (AU), April 15-24, 1995
Availability: Available from (1) as Paper EN 39630 ORA
Record Number: 199610608 / Last updated on: 1996-05-27
Original language: en
Available languages: en