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This paper describes the background to the Three Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) of Russell and Burch, and progress with their implementation with respect to the use of animals for biomedical research and for toxicity testing purposes.

Additional information

Authors: BALLS M, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Paper presented: Animals in Science Conference, Clayton (AU), April 15-24, 1995
Availability: Available from (1) as Paper EN 39631ORA
Record Number: 199610609 / Last updated on: 1996-05-27
Original language: en
Available languages: en