Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS


Animals are used in laboratories to increase fundamental understanding of normal functioning of body systems and of disease and to assist in the discovery of treatment and cures; to test chemical and products of many kinds, as a mean of protecting workers, consumers, patients, and the environment as a whole and to help educate and train students and scientists. We admit that we have benefited from animal-based progress in medical research and we expect to be protected from hazardous chemicals. At the same time, we do not want to be associated with animal suffering. A way forward was offered to us in 1959 by two British scientists, William Russel and Rex Burch who formulated a concept now known as the Three Rs. They said that everybody concerned has a duty to develop alternative procedures that could completely replace the need for animal experiments, reduce the number of animals required, and refine the procedures applied to them, to diminish the amount of pain or distress suffered by animals in attempting to meet the essential needs of human beings and other animals. This concept now forms the basis of various laws and controls on animal experiments.

Additional information

Authors: BALLS M, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Article : HSUS NEWS Human Society of the United States (1996)
Record Number: 199610779 / Last updated on: 1996-08-16
Original language: en
Available languages: en
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