Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS


The three Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) of Russel and Burch form the basis of legislation on animal experimentation. However, the impact of this legislation on routine toxicity testing has been disappointing. In recent years, some progress has been made in reducing the numbers of animals used in acute toxicity testing, and in refining the procedures employed, through the use of limit tests, in vitro prescreens, and sequential (hierarchical) testing strategies. Similar approaches should now be applied to other types of toxicity testing. In terms of achieving greater implementation of the three Rs in toxicology, high priority should be given to the development and optimization of scientifically sound testing strategies. In addition, research should be undertaken which is specifically aimed at providing validated replacement alternatives for currently accepted animal tests.

Additional information

Authors: FENTEM J H, JRC Ispra (IT);BALLS M, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Comments on Toxicology (1996)
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