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Artificial rainwater samples, with concentration close to the values ordinarily measured in northern Italy, and sodium hydrogen carbonate stabilized with chloroform, were prepared in September 1995 by the Environment Institute of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, and the results elaborated jointly with the CNR Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, Pallanza. Homogeneity and stability tests were performed to check the reliability of the samples.
Results showed the prevalence of systematic over random errors for most of the chemical variables examined; systematic errors were even more marked in the case of alkalinity measurements. pH and alkalinity were among the most critical measurements and the results stress the need for strict measurement protocols to improve the comparability between the different laboratories. Some analytical techniques, such as the use of colour indicators in the case of alkalinity and turbidimetry for sulphate, proved to be quite inadequate for measuring low concentrations. A comparison of the exercises performed in 1991 to 1995 shows a slight improvement in the results; the improvement is more evident if only those laboratories which have participated regularly in the intercomparisons are considered.

Additional information

Authors: MOSELLO R ET AL, Instituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, Verbania Pallanza (IT);BIANCHI M, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 16425 EN (1996) 50pp., FS
Availability: Available from the Public Relations and Publications Unit, JRC Ispra, I-21020 Ispra (IT)
Record Number: 199611037 / Last updated on: 1996-09-30
Original language: en
Available languages: en