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Although aromatic nitrations in mixed acid were one of the earliest unit processes to be operated on a large scale when the heavy organic chemical industry first developed last century and that these reactions have played an equally important part in the development of our present understanding of the mechanism of organic reactions, offering a typical example of electrophilic substitution, many questions remain to be answered, particularly under the conditions employed in industry and mainly in batch reactors.
The present investigation was undertaken with the main purpose of studying the dynamic behaviour and the influence of the different initial and operating conditions in discontinuous nitration processes.
In this paper the dynamic behaviour and the influence of the initial and operating conditions in discontinuous nitration processes will be reviewed with the aid of a mathematical model for predicting the overall conversion rate. The simulated result will be compared with the experimental ones. Some important safety aspects of discontinuous aromatic nitrations by mixed acid are presented and discussed using the above mentioned mathematical model. In particular, the study concentrates on the following safety issues: the effect of phase inversion phenomena; the stirrer malfunctioning problem; and the in situ containment of a thermal excursion by addition of a suppressant. .

Additional information

Authors: ZALDIVAR J M, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Paper presented: Nitrazioni Sicure in laboratorio e in impianto industriale, S Donato Milanese (IT) October 15, 1996
Availability: Available from (1) as Paper EN 40096 ORA
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