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  • Review on cocoa butter and alternative fats for use in chocolate: Compositional data: Analytical approaches for identification and determination


This work reviews the literature in the compositional data of vegetable fats used or proposed as alternatives to cocoa butter in chocolate and confectionery products. These fats are mostly mixtures of various vegetable fats (often modified) and can consist of palm and palm kernel oil, illipé fat, shea butter, sal fat and kokum butter. In addition, a large variety of other vegetable oils can be used. Their composition according to triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols and other unsaponifiable components is discussed in this report. The literature on analytical methods suitable for the detection and identification and determination of foreign fats in cocoa butter and chocolate is also reviewed. Most methods are based on chromatography analysing either fatty acids, triglyceride or the fractions of the unsaponifiables (sterols, triterpenes, etc). It is proposed to combine a number of techniques with a chemometric approach to develop unique patterns allowing the unequivocal detection and quantification of foreign fats, without having prior knowledge regarding the kind of fat added. This approach is based on the use of a complex pattern of the constituents of cocoa butter and any deviation from this pattern is attributed to the existence of foreign fat.

Additional information

Authors: LIPP M, JRC Ispra (IT);ANKLAM E, JRC Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Food Chemistry (1997)
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