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Dedicated facilities for the transformation of biological and inorganic solid or liquid materials into dry powder samples are used. The major guidelines followed in the conception of these facilities are:

- to be able to handle large quantities of base material in a short time, as this is an important prerequisite to be able to produce CRMs at a unit price which is economically acceptable;
- to prepare samples of the correct sample size, which often means larger series of smaller samples (to avoid that spoiled, contaminated or badly conserved samples are used over too long periods of time in the laboratories);
- to prepare samples of the highest quality, which means that preparations must take place under clean and cold conditions, that dry products are prepared and packed under inert conditions, and that care must be taken that particle size distributions are small.
Some typical examples of facilities developed or adapted to fulfill the specific requirements of professional CRM preparation are discussed (eg the whole-teflon cryo-grinding equipment, the in-line controlled freeze drier, the special facility for clean and dry handling of powders, the milling with ultrafine classification equipment and the automatisation of bottling and labelling operations). ns).

Additional information

Authors: KRAMER G N, JRC Geel (BE);PAUWELS J, JRC Geel (BE);MUNTAU H, JRC Ispra (IT);MAIER E, Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme, Brussels (BE)
Bibliographic Reference: Paper presented: 7th International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Reference Materials, Antwerpen (BE), April 21-25, 1997
Availability: Available from (1) as Paper EN 40784 ORA
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