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Thin Ti films with thicknesses in the range between 200 and 300 Angstrom were evaporated onto graphite substrates under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The samples were annealed up to temperatures of 1470 K. After reaching steady state, subsequent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed formation of different TiC(x) phases dependent on the annealing temperature. For temperatures lower than 600 K, little carbide formation occurs in the metal film; a mixed metal-carbide phase forms only at the metal-graphite interface. At higher temperatures, the concentration ratio x of carbidic C to Ti ranges from about 0.6 at 750 K to about 0.95 at 1200 K and higher annealing temperatures. It was observed that the binding energies of the Ti 2p electrons rise continuously with increasing concentration ratio at carbidic C to Ti. Depth profiles were made to investigate chemical phases in the Ti film, as well as at the interface. It is illustrated from the profiles that formation of carbide proceeds from the metal-graphite interface, as well as from surface segregated carbon and advances into the Ti layer from both sides.

Additional information

Authors: MILLER S, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching bei München (DE);PLANK H, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching bei München (DE);ROTH J, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching bei München (DE);BERNING G L P, Department of Physics, UOVs, Bloemfontein (ZA)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Vol. A15 (1997) pp. 2029-2034
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