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Abstract

Basic principles of heterodyne techniques are introduced and the various components of a heterodyne system are summarized. Special applications in electron-cyclotron emission (ECE), interferometry and reflectometry are discussed after introducing the diagnostic principles. Realized systems as described in the literature are briefly outlined. Ordering principles are radiometer types in the case of ECE, mixing scheme and generation and stabilization of local oscillator and intermediate frequency signals in the case of interferometry and reflectometry. Special techniques and their impact on the performance of the diagnostic instruments are discussed.

Additional information

Authors: HARTFUSS H J, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching bei München (DE);GEIST T, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching bei München (DE);HIRSCH M, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching bei München (DE)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 39 (1997) pp. 1693-1769
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