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13 different bio-mass materials and two varieties of lignite were selected for examination of optimum pyrolysis conditions and the activation levels achieved in granular end-products. The processing variables including final temperature, rate of temperature rise, composition of purging and activation atmospheres in both single- and double-stage processes. It was found that an initial assessment of activation potential could be established by reference to the mechanical strength, the micro-porosity and the bulk density of the end-products. No relationship was found between oxygen/carbon ratios and the quality of the end-product. For successful results, the rate of heat input is important as is the presence of steam in the purging gas. Nut shells and fruit stones were the best bio-mass materials (coconut shells and peach stones, in particular, in preference to walnut shells and cherry stones), all of which gave better results than lignite materials with their high ash contents although the latter produced higher yields. It is necessary to modify processing conditions from one material to another to obtain the best results in each case over a wide range of products for different applications.

Additional information

Authors: MEYER B, Institut fur Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen, Feiburg (DE)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 17149 DE (1999) 79pp.
Availability: Available from OOPEC Sales agents
ISBN: ISBN 92-828-5442-6
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