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Reduction of animal experimentation is discussed in terms of the contributions to be made by replacement alternative methods. Replacement is classified as partial or total, and as direct or indirect. The value of partial replacement is discussed in the context of the hierarchical testing strategies. Attention is also focused on the importance of developing tests able to provide knowledge which is needed.

Additional information

Authors: BALLS M, EI, JRC-Ispra (IT);FENTEM J, EI, JRC-Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: Article: Target 2000 (1999) , 1-8
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