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This report presents the results and recommendations of the research project 'Wind energy production in cold climates' (WECO), JOR3-CT95-0014, aiming at the investigation of wind turbines under cold-climate operation, which was partially supported by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, under the non-nuclear energy programme. It is shown experimentally and by numerical simulations that icing of rotor blades or other components leads to up to 20-50 % decreased production due to ice accretion or safety demands. Extreme low air temperature again raises new demands for design parameters. Icing of anemometers and other wind gauges typically leads to wrong estimation of wind power potential and operational problems of wind turbines.

The icing map shows that icing and cold weather conditions occur in large regions in Europe, not only in the Nordic countries but also especially in mountainous regions in northern Europe, Germany, the UK, the Alps, Spain and central Italy. A method to combine the European wind atlas and icing data to estimate the on-site effect on wind power production is presented. For environmental safety, icing is a significant design parameter. New theoretical study in ice throw from the rotating blades verified observations. Conventional and ice-free anemometers were tested at several sites in Europe.

Keywords: Wind turbines, icing, low temperature, loads, power production, ice-free anemometers.

Additional information

Authors: TAMMELIN B, Finnish Meteorological Institute,Vuorikatu 24, 00100 Helsinki (FI);SANTTI K, Finnish Meteorological Institute,Vuorikatu 24, 00100 Helsinki (FI);HOLTTINEN H, VTT Energy, P.O.Box 1606,02044 VTT (FI);MORGAN C, Garrad Hassan, UK The Coach House, Folleigh Lane Long Ashton, Bristol BS18 9JB (UK);SEIFERT H, Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (DEWI), Ebertstr.96,26382 (DE)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 19398 EN (2000) 41pp., EURO:10
Availability: Available from the European Commission, DG XII Communication Unit, rue de la Loi/Wetstraat 200, B-1049 Bruxelles (BE) Tel: +32-2-2955851 Fax:+32-2-2958220 internet:http//
ISBN: ISBN 92-894-0033-1
Record Number: 200012977 / Last updated on: 2000-12-22
Original language: en
Available languages: en