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The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European collaboration with the US Department of Energy in the 'EC/US Fuel Cycles Study'. Successful collaboration at that time produced workable methodology for detailed quantification of the external costs of fuel cycles. A series of reports were published in the USA and in Europe in 1994 and 1995, the European reports covering:
-Volume 1: Summary.
-Volume 2: Methodology.
-Volume 3: Coal and Lignite.
-Volume 4: Oil and Gas.
-Volume 5: Nuclear.
-Volume 6: Wind and Hydro.

ontinued funding allowed the European study team to expand in the next phase of the study which ran from 1996 to 1997, bringing in additional expertise, and broadening the geographical coverage of the study within the European Union. By this time all EU Member States except Luxembourg were included, and from outside the EU, Norway.

At the end of that phase three further reports were produced by the European team of which this is one:

-Volume 7: Methodology Update 1998.
-Volume 8: Global Warming Damages.
-Volume 9: Waste, PV, New Power Technologies and End Use Technologies.

As is evident from its title, this report supersedes the original Volume 2 on methodology. Elements of the earlier report have been retained where appropriate. However, this report mainly consists of new or revised text, reflecting the significant advances made to the end of 1997. A further report covering the results of the ExtemE National Implementation study from 1996 to 1997 is also to be published.

Additional information

Authors: HOLLAND M, AEA Technology, (UK);BERRY J, AEA Technology, (UK);FORSTER D (EDITORS), AEA Technology, (UK)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR: 19083 (1999), 535pp, Euro: Free of charge
Availability: Available from the European Commission, DG XII Communication Unit, rue de la Loi/Wetstraat 200, B-1049 Bruxelles (BE) Tel: +32-2-2950001 Fax:+32-2-2958220 email:
ISBN: ISBN: 92-828-7782-5
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