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This paper offers theoretical background and empirical evidence on new concepts, which have the ability to cope with contemporary societal problems. The main idea was the search for a group-oriented society, to counteract the failures, which have been and still are experienced by large-scale organizations (e.g. trade unions, the Roman Catholic church, national health-care systems, national social security institutions, large political parties, etc.) on the one hand, and by isolated individuals on the other. Whilst large-scale organizations are insufficiently flexible and too costly to deal efficiently with everyday problems and challenges (e.g. the incidence of illness, the welfare of the unemployed and the elderly, the provision of adequate education and training), the individual is too weak and vulnerable to cope with the adverse events and shortcomings of everyday life. Groups located in the middle range between large organizations and the individual are thus more flexible than the first, and more effective than the second. Progress in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the new networking approach, which is linked to this, suggested the concept of Targeted Intelligence Networks (TINs).

TINs can be described as networks of voluntary, self-organized groups, of variable size and organization, which by means of ICT can contribute to the societal empowerment and development of their members through their own experience.

The study was commissioned by the JRC Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville (ES) ES)

Additional information

Authors: KARLSON L, Hippopotamos Bildungsberatungsges.m.b.H, Vienna (AT)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 19568 EN (2001), pp. 71. Euro: Free of charge
Availability: Available from European Commission, JRC Knowledge Management Unit, Ispra (IT) Tel: +39 033278 9843 or +39 033278 9864 Fax: +39 033278 9623 E-mail:
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