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Intensive carbon dioxide emanations occur throughout the island of Vulcano (north of Sicily, Italy). The main sources of carbon dioxide are the hot fumaroles (almost 500°C) of the northern ridge of the La Fossa crater, the fumaroles of the Baia di Levante and the emission areas spread out both on the slopes of the cone and in the nearby plain. In this paper, carbon dioxide concentrations in the air over the island are estimated by means of two numerical codes. Attention is focused on carbon dioxide and on the roles the different carbon dioxide sources play in the inhabited area of Vulcano Porto village. In the model chain, the wind flow is simulated using a 3D mesoscale meteorological model for complex terrain. The simulations are performed for the most significant large-scale wind conditions derived from a meteorological analysis of the region. Flow model outputs are then used by way of a Lagrangian particle model to simulate the dispersion of the gas and to calculate the concentrations. The space and time evolution of gas concentration is discussed for various sources and output rates.

Simulations show that the main contribution comes from the soil emission at the volcano feet, while contributions from the cone slopes and the crater fumaroles are both negligible. Results agree well with field measurements, indicating a sharp decrease in carbon dioxide concentration downwind, and nocturnal peaks of few hundred ppm in the areas emitting 10{-3} cubic cm (carbon dioxide STP)/square cm s. .

Additional information

Authors: PARESCHI M T, CSGSDA-CNR, Pisa (IT);RANCI M, CSGSDA-CNR, Pisa (IT);VALENZA M, University of Palermo (IT);GRAZIANI G, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Environment Institute, Ispra (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: An article published in:Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 108 (1-4), (2001), pp. 219-235.
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