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  • Special and alloy steels, The investigation and evaluation of the spray-formed states of tool steels to make a catalogue of materials properties available


Spray forming is a new production route for high-alloyed steels. The aim of the project was the comparison of the materials quality with materials from established production routes. Therefore medium-sized billets from D2 M2 H13 and SAE51446 are spray formed and processed to semi-finished material. The results show a wide capability of spray forming to produce complex steels on a high technological level.
The analysis of the semi-finished products in a hardened and tempered condition has focussed one microstructure, impact toughness and abrasive wear resistance using the pin on disk and rubber wheel tests. The tool steels show equivalent secondary hardness maximal after all production routes (cast ('C'), spray formed ('SF') and powder metallurgy ('PM')). The microstructure is homogenous with small-sized carbides in SF quality, while there are lines of large carbides in C quality. SF includes randomly distributed larger-sized carbides than PM. Originating from these microstructural differences, the impact toughness as well as its isotropy ascends from the state of C via SF to PM quality. Concerning the abrasive wear resistance, SF can be classified between cast and PM qualities, but the grade of enhancement depends strongly upon the composition.
The future of spray forming is the production of more complex alloys to achieve further enhancement of properties, i.e. higher benefits for the customer when using the material maintaining cost reduction. 'Tailoring' high-quality material in small heats is possible, thus giving the chance of production of application-adapted alloys on demand. Together with the capability of spray forming to produce freestanding shapes, it might become an advantageous way of producing complex tools.

Additional information

Authors: SCHULZ A, IWT-Stiftung Institut fur Werkstofftechnik, Bremen (DE);SPANGEL S, IWT-Stiftung Institut fur Werkstofftechnik, Bremen (DE);SCHNEIDER R, Bohler Edelstahl GmbH, Kapfenberg (AT);VIALE D, Bohler Edelstahl GmbH, Kapfenberg (AT);BERTRAND C, Usinor Industreel, Le Creusot (FR)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 20948 EN (2004), 131 pp. Euro: 25
Availability: EUR-OP reference: KI-NA-20948-EN-S Available from EUR-OP sales agents URL:
ISBN: ISBN: 92-894-7746-6
Record Number: 200417608 / Last updated on: 2004-07-06
Original language: en
Available languages: en