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This project aimed to further the understanding of the mechanisms of precipitation in two ways: firstly, by the development of new and improved methods of precipitation characterisation, and secondly, by the construction of thermodynamic and kinetic precipitation growth/dissolution models using data obtained from the characterisation of selected systems.

From round robin tests and assessment of various techniques on a series of laboratory steels we conclude that for the characterisation of small hardening Nb(C,N) precipitates in ferrite we can rely on two experimental techniques: (i) the chemical analysis of precipitates after selective matrix dissolution, and (ii) transmission electron microscopy on thin foils and replicas.

A model for the precipitation of niobium carbon and nitrogen is available. The model predicts correctly the influence of the annealing temperature and alloy composition on the size, fraction, number and composition of Nb(C,N) precipitates.

In addition, precipitation kinetics in various micro-alloyed and IF steels has been characterised in details and simplified easy-to use models for the kinetics of precipitation have been developed.

Additional information

Authors: MAUGIS P, IRSID, Maizieres-les-Metz (FR);LANTREI S, IRSID, Maizieres-les-Metz (FR);RAVAINE D, IRSID, Maizieres-les-Metz (FR);BARGES P, IRSID, Maizieres-les-Metz (FR);GOUNE M, IRSID, Maizieres-les-Metz (FR);BI Y, CORUS Rotherham (GB);LAMBERIGTS M, CRM, Liege (BE);SIWECKI T, SIMR, Stockholm (SE)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 20938 EN (2004), 230 pp. Euro: 35
Availability: EUR-OP reference: KI-NA-20938-EN-S Available from EUR-OP sales agents URL:
ISBN: ISBN: 92-894-7488-2
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