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Two to three times the quantity of energy now used may be consumed by 2050.It is now estimated that fossil petroleum and uranium reserves will be exhausted in 40 years, in 60 years for gas and 220 years for coal. The discovery and management of a sustainable energy source, that is profitable and poses no risks for the environment is a fundamental task for mankind. This has been the driving force for engineers and researchers at the association Euroatom-CEA, who have been exploring a new form of energy since 1950: controlled thermonuclear fusion.
The development of this new energy requires the management of hot and dense plasma for relatively long periods. Within the framework of the CIEL Project, plasma discharges of 1000 s are envisaged on the Tore Supra, tokamak operated by CEA Cadarache. During the implementation of this project, a toroidal pumped limiter has been installed in the lower part of the empty chamber of the Tore Supra. This latter consisting of a stainless steel support structure, to which carbon fibre composite and hard copper (CuCrZr) needles hare fixed (576) has been designed to remove 15 MW of convective power in steady state.

Additional information

Authors: DORE P, Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (FR);GAUTHIER E, Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (FR)
Bibliographic Reference: An oral paper given at: 5ème Colloque International Francophone : Méthodes et Techniques Optiques pour l'Industri
Availability: Available from Association EURATOM-CEA, Département de Recherches sur la Fusion Contrôlée, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, France Tel: (+33) 4 42 25 70 01; Fax: (+33) 4 42 25 64 21 E-mail:
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