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It has been shown on tokamak CASTOR by using an emissive Langmuir probe that positive plasma 'biasing' takes place in a radially very narrow layer just at the grill mouth. The effect scales linearly with the power applied. Apparently, this positive biasing results from the charge separation due to the escaping electrons, accelerated by the near field lower hybrid wave effects in this region, along the magnetic field lines (Fuchs V et al 1996 Phys. Plasmas 3 4023).

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Authors: ZACEK F, Association Euratom/IPP.CR, Prague (CZ);PETRZILKA V, Association Euratom/IPP.CR, Prague (CZ);GONICHE M, Département de Recherches sur la Fusion Contrôlée, Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (FR)
Bibliographic Reference: An article published in: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 47 (2005), pp. L17-L24
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