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An overview of the FTU results during the period 2003-4 is presented. A prototype ITER-relevant lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) launcher, the passive active multijunction, has been successfully tested (f = 8 GHz) showing high power handling and good coupling properties and current drive comparable to those of a conventional launcher. Effective electron and ion heating (via collisions) have been achieved with the 140 GHz ECRH systems up to 1.5 MW, as well as current drive (25 kA at n(e0) = 8 × 10{19} m{-3}). The mitigation of disruptions has been studied with on-axis ECRH. Ion Bernstein wave studies have shown the importance of recycling in achieving improved confinement plasmas. Advanced tokamak scenarios are presented including repetitive pellet enhanced plasmas and electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs). Very peaked density profiles have been achieved with a low speed vertical pellet injector located at about mid-radius on the high field side. The performance is comparable to that achieved with a high-speed horizontal pellet injector. Possible reasons for this behaviour are discussed, among them the presence of an 'MHD' drift once particles reach the q = 1 surface. The effect of peaked density profiles on confinement is discussed. Electron ITBs can be produced at high density in FTU with LHCD only and with the combined use of LHCD and ECRH: T(e0) = 6 keV with n(e0) = 1.4 × 10{20} m{-3} and H(97) = 1.6. Turbulence is strongly reduced. Ions are heated by collisions with Delta T(i)/T(i) up to 35% showing that e-ITBs are not degraded by the electron�ion collisions. Particle pinch studies have been made at high densities in full current drive conditions where the Ware pinch plays no role. An anomalous inward pinch exists even at these high densities (n(e0) = 1.5 × 10{20} m{-3}). Despite the absence of energetic particles in FTU, MHD spectroscopy has revealed high frequency modes (30-80 kHz) that might have consequences for burning plasmas.

Additional information

Authors: ANGELINI B, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro.Richerche Energia ENEA-Frascati, Frascati (IT)
Bibliographic Reference: An article published in: Nuclear Fusion 45 (2005), pp. S227-S238
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