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  • Enhanced steel product quality and productivity through improved flux performance in the mould by optimising the multiphase flow conditions and with special regard to melting and entrapment


This project aimed at providing constructive and process engineering measures to guarantee sufficient melting of the flux and to avoid flux entrapment. Extensive operational investigations were carried out to identify parameters important for this flux-flow behaviour as well as to elaborate optimum set-points and SEN designs. Various methods for measuring flux layer thickness and horizontal flow velocity in the mould - important parameters influencing flux behaviour - were partly developed and applied. Investigations covered flat and long products as well as carbon and stainless steels. Substantial physical and mathematical modelling work was carried out to provide additional information on the correlation between operational parameters and flux behaviour. Here, advanced techniques with regard to simulation of flux layer evolution and formation - also under the influence of flow conditions in the mould - were applied. Modelling results were verified by operational trials. The research made it possible to identify certain parameters that are important for controlling flux behaviour according to goals: casting velocity, immersion depth, oscillation stroke, nozzle design and the free carbon content and viscosity of the flux. Also possible was the elaboration of statements concerning the proper adjustment of these parameters. On the other hand, parameters such as melt superheat or intensity of electromagnetic stirring have minor influence. A very important fact is that unsteady conditions increase the risk of entrapment. Here, there is a high risk when casting begins, and until the process achieves a certain degree of stability. Moreover, a loss in mould level stability or changes in near-surface flow velocities of the melt must be avoided. The results of this research are clearly useful for many European steel producers. To guarantee optimum flux behaviour, the parameters must be finely tuned to match the specific situation of an individual plant. The research demonst

Additional information

Authors: STRIEDINGER R, Betriebsforschungsinstitut (BFI), Düsseldorf (DE);SANCHO L F, Arcelor España S.A., Avilés (ES);DÍAZ J, Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A. (CSM), Rome (IT);DE SANTIS M, Cogne Acciai Speciali S.r.l. (C.A.S.), Aosta (IT);RIDOLFI M R, Cogne Acciai Speciali S.r.l. (C.A.S.), Aosta (IT);POLI A, Sidenor Investigation Y Desarrollo S.A. (Sidenor I+D), Basauri (ES);BENNANI A, Sidenor Investigation Y Desarrollo S.A. (Sidenor I+D), Basauri (ES);LARAUDOGOITIA J, ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH (TKN), Bochum (DE);CIRIZA J, ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH (TKN), Bochum (DE);HOLZHAUSER J, ;ERNENPUTSCH L,
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 23182 EN (2008), 153 pp. Euro: 20
Availability: Katalogue Number: KI-NA-23182-EN-S The paper version can be ordered online and the PDF version downloaded at:
ISBN: ISBN: 978-92-79-07683-1
Record Number: 201010016 / Last updated on: 2010-01-07
Original language: en
Available languages: en