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The goal of this research project was to optimise the ladle preheating procedure for emissions and energy consumption. The project began with a detailed analysis of the present situation of ladle heating at the different steel plants (including on-site measurements). The ladles investigated differ in size, in heating procedure and refractory lining. The outgassing behaviour of eight typical refractory products was tested in newly developed (material and combustion) test facilities. The highest amount of outgassing volatile components occurs at a brick temperature of 450°C. A thermo-kinetic model was developed, based on experimental results and CFD simulations of the ladle flow field (including the burner flame), to describe the interaction of fluid flow, heat transfer, evaporation rate (outgassing behaviour) of the volatile components and their combustion. A simplified version of this model was produced for use as a 'ladle temperature control model' at the participating plants. The optimisation of the ladle flow field led to a new suction hood design for the heating system. The main features are the 'U'-shaped flow inside the ladle and a heat recovery in the exhaust channel, which led to a complete burnout of the volatile components and enabled the change from an oxygen/natural-gas combustion to an air/natural-gas combustion. These heating systems were installed in the participating plants. The energy consumption was reduced by approximately 20 %, NOx by 90 % and PAH down to around 10 ppm. When in operation the ladle temperature control model is successful.

Additional information

Authors: No author stated, European Commission, DG Research, Brussels (BE)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 23175 EN (2008), 113 pp. Euro: 20
Availability: Katalogue Number: KI-NA-23175-EN-S The paper version can be ordered online at:
ISBN: ISBN: 978-92-79-07646-6
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