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Abstract

Thermography will be an important diagnostic on the ITER tokamak, but the inclusion of reflective materials such as tungsten in the design for ITER's first wall and divertor region presents problems for optical temperature measurement. The ongoing testing of ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) provides an excellent opportunity to resolve such problems. This has focused on the variation of PFC emissivity with temperature and time, as well as environmental influence on thermography. The sensitivity of these systems to ambient temperature, due primarily to modification of the transmission of the optical path, has been established and minimised. The accuracy of the system is then sufficient to measure the variation of emissivity in heated material samples, by comparing its front-face luminance measured with an infrared camera to the temperature given by an implanted thermocouple. Measurements on both tungsten and carbon fibre composite are in broad agreement with theory, and thus give the material's function of emissivity with temperature at the start of its life. To determine its evolution, a bicolour pyroreflectometer was then installed. This uses two lasers to measure the reflectivity in addition to the luminance at two wavelengths, and thus the true temperature can be calculated. This was validated against the instrumented sample, then used along with the camera to observe an ITER mock-up during ~50,000 s of 5 MW/m{2} testing. Emissivity was seen to vary little in the 500 °C region. Higher temperature tests are ongoing.

Additional information

Authors: LOTT F, Département de Recherches sur la Fusion Contrôlée, Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (FR);ESCOURBIAC F, Département de Recherches sur la Fusion Contrôlée, Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (FR);NETCHAIEFF A, Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE), Trappes (FR);JOUVELOT J-L, AREVA NP, Centre Technique-FE200, Le Creusot (FR);CONSTANS S, AREVA NP, Centre Technique-FE200, Le Creusot (FR);HERNANDEZ D, Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Font-Romeu (FR)
Bibliographic Reference: An article published in: Fusion Engineering and Design, Volume 85, Issue 1, January 2010, 146-152
Availability: This article can be accessed online by subscribers, and can be ordered online by non-subscribers, at: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2009.08.007
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