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This paper outlines the procedures implemented in the European Social Survey (ESS) to enhance translation comparability by design and not by chance and sets these against the background of the challenges to be met in general when producing multi-lingual versions of survey questionnaires.

This is an abstract of a paper given by Janet Harkness (The Centre for Survey Research and Methodology (ZUMA), Mannheim, Germany) at the conference "Measuring attitudes and values in Europe" - European Social Survey Launch Conference, Brussels, 25-26 November 2003. Further details of the conference are available on CORDIS at: A full version of the paper may possibly be available on that site after the conference.

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