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  • Youth Unemployment and Social Exclusion in Six Countries of the EU: Dimensions, Subjective Experiences, and Institutional responses in Six Countries of the EU (YUSEDER)


This comparative report gives an overview of the institutional answers to the problem of youth unemployment in six European countries. National and regional programmes and especially local initiatives and projects will be presented. The results from six countries of the European Union (Sweden, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy and Spain) will be presented in the form of interviews with experts and case studies (Chapter 2). In the comparison of the national differences, we will focus on the innovative approaches toward combating youth unemployment. Above all, concepts and projects are emphasised which, taking into consideration the National Action Plans, have made an important contribution to the lasting vocational integration of long-term unemployed young people on the national level and which can offer initiatives for future institutional coping with the problem of youth unemployment on a European level (Chapter 3). It also touches the question as to what extent successful projects and initiatives can be implemented in other countries and regions without ignoring the national structural and cultural peculiarities. Decisive for national activities toward combating youth unemployment are the Employment Guidelines formulated on the European level, altogether 22 guidelines which deal with the various aspects of labour market policies. Guideline 1 is important within the context of youth unemployment, programmatically formulated as follows:
"every unemployed person is offered a new start before reaching six months of unemployment, in the form of training, re-training, work practice, a job or other employability measure" (European Commission, 1999, p. 12).
The special economic as well as socio-political importance given to the problem of youth unemployment in Europe is reflected in this guideline. At the end of this report, we will present the extent to which the Employment Guidelines deviate from the various national institutional activities and which deficiencies an

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