Wspólnotowy Serwis Informacyjny Badan i Rozwoju - CORDIS

FP7

AQUO Streszczenie raportu

Project ID: 314227
Źródło dofinansowania: FP7-TRANSPORT
Kraj: France

Final Report Summary - AQUO (Achieve QUieter Oceans by shipping noise footprint reduction)

Executive Summary:
The adverse impacts of noise at short or long-term on marine life are a growing concern among the scientific community. Anthropogenic noise introduced into the marine environment has reached unprecedented levels and a significant portion of underwater noise generated by human activity is related to maritime traffic, which is expected to increase steadily.
To reduce the shipping noise negative consequences on marine life, the AQUO project (“Achieve QUieter Oceans by shipping noise footprint reduction”) was built in the scope of the FP7 European Research Framework. AQUO addresses to the call FP7-SST-2012-RTD-1 of the TRANSPORT theme in the Sustainable Surface Transport "Assessment and mitigation of noise impacts of the maritime transport on the marine environment".
The overall objective of AQUO is:
• to assess and mitigate noise impacts of the maritime transport on the marine underwater environment, mainly for the protection of marine species,
• to support the requirements of Directive 2008/56/EC (Marine Strategy Framework Directive MSFD) and related Commission Decision on criteria for Good Environmental Status.

At the end of the project, the main deliverable is a “Practical guidelines document” providing support to policy makers, targeting also ship industry, in order to meet the requirements of the MSFD, including:
• a good knowledge and prediction of the shipping noise level and spatio-temporal distribution thanks to a Noise Footprint Assessment tool,
• practical and economically feasible design recommendations for the reduction of underwater radiated noise (URN) of ships,
• measures for the mitigation of impacts of shipping noise on the marine environment, with respects to living species.

To address the many different topics, AQUO project adopted a multi-disciplinary approach thanks to the complementarity of expertise of the 13 partners from 8 different European countries.

AQUO was organized in five interconnected technical work packages (WP):
• WP1 Noise footprint assessment model: this WP aimed at developing a validated underwater noise footprint assessment tool. This tool was used intensively in WP5 to determine the efficiency of the different solutions.
• WP2 Noise sources: this WP was focusing on propeller noise prediction, including cavitation effects and interaction with hull.
• WP3 Measurements: the main objective of WP3 was to develop adequate noise measurement and analysis methods to provide reliable data.
• WP4 Sensitivity on marine life: this WP was dedicated to bioacoustics on European representative marine species. Its main objective was to provide criteria for the assessment of the impact of shipping noise on marine life.
- WP5 Guidelines to reduce ship noise footprint: In this WP, design guidelines to improve ships and operation and maintenance considerations were described. Different solutions were assessed regarding ship URN reduction, fuel efficiency and impact on marine life.

Project Context and Objectives:
The adverse short or long-term impacts of noise on marine life represent a growing concern among the scientific community, as anthropogenic noise introduced into the marine environment has reached unprecedented levels. A significant portion of underwater noise generated by human activity is related to maritime traffic, which is expected to increase steadily.
To reduce the negative consequences of shipping noise on marine life, the AQUO project (“Achieve QUieter Oceans by shipping noise footprint reduction”) was built within the scope of the FP7 European Research Framework. AQUO addresses the call FP7-SST-2012-RTD-1 of the TRANSPORT theme in the Sustainable Surface Transport "Assessment and mitigation of noise impacts of the maritime transport on the marine environment".
The overall objectives of AQUO are:
• to assess and mitigate the noise impacts of maritime transport on the marine underwater environment, mainly for the protection of marine species, and
• to support the requirements of Directive 2008/56/EC (Marine Strategy Framework Directive MSFD) and related Commission decisions on the criteria for achieving a Good Environmental Status.

AQUO was organized into five interconnected technical work packages (WP):
• WP1 Noise footprint assessment model: this WP aimed at developing a validated underwater noise footprint assessment tool. This tool was used intensively in WP5 to determine the efficiency of the different solutions.
• WP2 Noise sources: this WP was focusing on propeller noise prediction, including cavitation effects and interaction with hull.
• WP3 Measurements: the main objective of WP3 was to develop adequate noise measurement and analysis methods to provide reliable data.
• WP4 Sensitivity on marine life: this WP was dedicated to bioacoustics on European representative marine species. Its main objective was to provide criteria for the assessment of the impact of shipping noise on marine life.
• WP5 Guidelines to reduce ship noise footprint: In this WP, design guidelines to improve ships and operation and maintenance considerations were described. Different solutions were assessed regarding ship URN reduction, fuel efficiency and impact on marine life.

The main objective of WP1 was to define, build and validate an operational tool able to predict the footprint of anthropogenic noise of shipping activities, by implementing the methodology described in section 2 of the present document. The work package benefitted from the use of Quonops©, a global ocean noise prediction platform developed and operated by Quiet-Oceans, and from the use of real-time feeds of audio stream provided by LIDO (UPC) observatories and interface. This tool was used in WP5 to determine the efficiency of different solutions with regards to the spreading of radiated anthropogenic noise in the ocean and to the impact on marine life. This work package was a key element to address the needs for transport policy and environmental risk assessment.

The main objectives of WP2 are:
• to characterise the underwater noise emissions of the ship, providing input data for the noise footprint model (developed in WP1 and used in WP5),
• to validate and/or improve models and methods to predict underwater noise radiated by the propeller, including cavitation effects, and interactions with ship hull (wake, vibro-acoustic response).
In particular, efforts are focussed on the improvement of the knowledge of cavitation noise phenomena and in the development of predictive models for the propeller noise radiation (including validation with measurements). Such predictive models include the assessment of the efficiency of the propeller with the technical solutions proposed to limit the noise radiation. These models and the results of the studies have also been used in WP5 to assess the effectiveness of different technical solutions to reduce ship URN, and consequently noise footprint in the underwater environment.

For WP3, the objective is twofold:
• collecting dedicated and accurate experimental data focused on feeding and validating the modelling activities of the project and the improvement solutions proposed for mitigating the Noise Footprint of ships,
• The development of new tools, equipment or techniques regarding ship underwater radiated noise, and the measurement of underwater radiated noise related to shipping.

The main objective of WP4 is to provide an assessment of the impact of shipping noise on marine life and an input to WP1 and WP5 to develop predictive models and solutions to reduce the underwater noise footprint. Indeed, the output of WP4 represents key information to define the needs and consequently to allow the assessment of the associated noise mitigation measures. Within that scope, bio-acoustic experiments were conducted on different representative marine species including fish, invertebrates and marine mammals. Measures were taken to fulfil ethical issues regarding experiments with animals and approved by an external expert.

The objective of WP5 was to provide support to policy makers, to meet the requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The “Practical Guide” provided by the AQUO consortium is the present document. At the end of the project, the main deliverable is a document of practical guidelines for policy makers, to help them meet the requirements of the MSFD, including:
• a good knowledge and prediction of shipping noise levels and spatio-temporal distribution thanks to a Noise Footprint Assessment tool,
• practical and economically feasible design recommendations for the reduction of underwater radiated noise (URN) of ships,
• measures for the mitigation of the shipping noise impact on the marine environment, with respect to resident species.

To address such a complex topic, the AQUO project adopts a multi-disciplinary approach, taking advantage from the complementary expertise of the 13 partners from 8 European countries.

Project Results:
Results from WP1 – Noise footprint assessment model:
The main results from the different tasks in work package 1 were the following:
• Task 1.1.1 “Needs and policies” (report D1.1): The first task established a map of all the maritime areas where there are already recommendations and rules regarding underwater noise impact. Information on the legal and institutional conditions on which European marine areas in general were/are/will be managed and implemented have been gathered. Good practices have been identified in order to adequately define the needs. A cross-analysis of the conjunction of intense ship traffic and presence of sensitive marine species has resulted in maps allowing the identification of priority areas of interest in European waters.
• Task 1.1.2 “Definition of noise footprint” (report D1.2): This study includes a literature review, focusing on papers or documents related to underwater noise due to shipping and impact on marine life. Then, a discussion is carried out using parallel considerations with airborne noise environmental issues and with the assessment of sonar detection performance. In the last part, this report proposes the definition of noise footprint adopted by the AQUO Project and clarifies the use of noise maps and statistical indicators.
• Task 1.2 “Scenarios for noise footprint assessment” (report D1.3):
o A scenario, in relation to the noise footprint assessment model, is defined by the maritime area of interest and sensor locations, the period of the year and the weather conditions, the topology and physical characteristics of sea bottom, the underwater acoustics parameters (natural ambient noise, speed of sound and density in water with respect to depth and range), the ship traffic (type of ships, ship spatial and time distribution, ship routes and speeds…), and the ship characteristics (underwater radiated noise with respect to speed).
o Two types of scenarios were retained to numerically simulate noise footprint: The first type is devoted to the validation of the footprint assessment model in Task 1.5 of the AQUO Project. In that case, ship traffic and type is not controlled but will be registered using AIS information. The second type is devoted to the determination of the efficiency of noise mitigation measures (such as reduction of intrinsic radiated noise of ships, introduction of ship speed limitations, modification of ship routes…), in the scope of Task 5.4 of AQUO Project.
• Based on the analysis of their interest regarding both ship traffic and marine life, three test areas were selected for modelling in the Quonops© tool: OBSEA (Mediterranean Sea, close to Barcelona), ANTARES (Mediterranean Sea, offshore Toulon), USHANT (Atlantic Ocean, Offshore Brittany).
• Task 1.3 “Development of noise footprint assessment model” (report D1.4): This task is devoted to the implementation of the methodology in Quonops©, a global ocean noise prediction platform by Quiet-Oceans. The research effort of the project has led to the delivery of an operational footprint assessment tool, which include real-time access to acoustic data stream for calibration. In the scope of the AQUO Project this tool has allowed continuous mapping of shipping and natural noise across three areas within European waters. This innovative operational service for ocean noise footprint assessment, which has been calibrated using in-situ underwater noise data provided by the LIDO interface, is now fully operational for the AQUO project WP5 research in order to evaluate the efficiency of a series of mitigation solutions, and also constitutes a decision aid tool for policy makers.
• Task 1.4 “Validation of the noise footprint assessment model” (reports D1.5 and D1.6): The objective of this task is to validate the implementation of real-time soundscape modelling. To achieve this, the modelling performed by Quonops© has been compared to measured data from in-situ measurements, and to alternative modelling software suites developed by UNIGE and FOI. The test maritime area is close to the OBSEA platform, an underwater observatory deployed by UPC near Barcelona (Spain). The oceanographic equipment is composed of a buoy and underwater measuring systems, including a hydrophone. Data was recorded during the period from March to July 2014, including the ship traffic through AIS information. The good comparison between the results allows the validation at this stage.

Results from WP2 – Noise sources
The main results from the different tasks in work package 2 were the following:
• Task 2.1 – Derivation of underwater radiated noise patterns (report D2.1 and R2.9). The main objective here was to define improved parametric models, representing the level of URN of a ship according to ship type, size, speed and frequency. These models were used in the AQUO Project for the determination of noise maps though implementation in the “Ocean Shipping Noise Footprint Assessment Model”. The method is based on the concept that the global URN of a ship can be decomposed into three noise components (machinery, propeller, and cavitation), each component having a characteristic URN pattern with respect to frequency and speed. This study has allowed significant improvements in comparison to previously available models. However, the uncertainty for a particular vessel can be large due to the variability of ship design within a category. Also, there is still a lack of well documented experimental data available in the literature.
• Task 2.2 – Predictive theoretical models for propeller URN (reports D2.2 and D2.3). In this task different predictive methods for radiated noise from propellers, including the hydrodynamic interaction with the hull, have been evaluated, using numerical modelling by different AQUO Partners (UNIGE, SSPA, CEHIPAR, and University of Strathclyde). The prediction of the underwater radiated noise from a propeller (cavitating or not) using numerical tools is a difficult task due to the complexity of the phenomena involved. The main studies have focussed on two case studies: a large research vessel (CTO) and a coastal tanker (SSPA), as input data and experimental results in model and full scale are available. Different numerical methods were used to carry out simulations on the various aspects:
o Velocity fields to the propeller: RANS coupled with unsteady potential flow method, SHIPFLOW RANS code, k-e RANS turbulence model with multiple reference frames, Finite volume RANS solver;
o Behaviour of non-cavitating propeller (pressure field): Non-linear BEM + LES (OpenFOAM environment), Self-propulsion condition imposed in the RANS code
o Acoustic radiation (non cavitating) : Full-scale URANS model coupled with the FWH (Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings) analogy, Far-field propagation using FWH;
o Behaviour of cavitating propeller : Unsteady panel method coupled with viscous flow prediction of the ship wake
o Acoustic radiation (cavitating) : Helmholtz integral method flow solver combined with Zwart’s cavitation model.
• Task 2.3 – Experimental investigation in model scale (reports D2.4 and D2.5): the results of the experimental campaigns in model scale carried out at the different facilities of CEHIPAR, SSPA and UNIGE are presented and discussed. In consistency with Task 2.2, the studies have focused on the same case studies, thus allowing a numerical-experimental comparison. Furthermore, it was possible to compare with each other the results obtained in different facilities in model scale, as well as to compare them with full-scale sea trials data. This activity is of great interest since rather limited data is available in open literature, especially regarding radiated noise measurements. The experiments carried out included:
o In the UNIGE cavitation tunnel: Propeller characteristics curves cavitation characterization, pressure fluctuations, radiated noise, propeller flow (LDV)
o In the SSPA water tunnel, propeller forces, pressure pulses, radiated noise, the propeller model scale being placed behind a model scale of the ship hull
o In the CEHIPAR cavitation tunnel: Observation of cavitation, pressure fluctuations, flow speed (LDV)
o In the CEHIPAR towing tank: Resistance, open water tests, self-propulsion, wake survey test (PIV), underwater radiated noise measurements
• Task 2.4 – Propeller-hull vibro-acoustic interaction (report D2.6): The objective is the numerical prediction of the contribution of the vibro-acoustic response of ship structure excited by the propeller in the total underwater radiated noise (URN) of a ship. Two vessels measured at sea in AQUO WP3 are modelled (a coastal tanker and a small research vessel, using two types of methods, according to the frequency range of validity: the finite elements method with or without boundary elements, the SEA method, and hybrid methods. Most of numerical studies in this work were carried out using commercial software. It is found in general that the numerical modelling fits experimental data in a satisfactory way. However, the modelling of the loads and the estimation of their magnitude is decisive to predict accurately the vibro-acoustic behaviour of the ship. Therefore, experimental data are necessary to carry out this kind of study.
• Task 2.5 – Synthesis – impact of propeller noise on global URN (reports D2.7 and D2.8): The main objective of this task was to look for a synthesis of all the contributions into a total ship radiated noise. For that purpose the different models developed in the previous tasks were exploited. The results of the analysis show that at low speeds, machinery noise dominates whereas propeller noise without cavitation is not very relevant. At higher speeds, in the case of a cavitating propeller, cavitation noise dominates, especially at medium and high frequencies. However, even in this case, machinery noise is still relevant in the low frequency range. Therefore, it is expected that both propeller and machinery noise should be reduced to obtain significant improvements on the total underwater radiated noise of a ship.

Results from WP3 – Measurements
The main results from the different tasks in work package 3 were the following:
• Task 3.1- Proposal for a European standard measurement method for ship URN (report D3.1): This study has allowed detailed investigation of the effect of different key parameters on the uncertainty and repeatability of URN measurement of ships, both in deep and shallow waters. One of the most important parameters is the accurate determination of sensors locations and the estimate of sound propagation loss. A new procedure has been defined, split into two grades and with two variants for deep and shallow waters. The results of the study prove that the needs expressed for accuracy and repeatability can be fulfilled. Furthermore, the method was used successfully to carry out sea trials on different vessels in the scope of Task 3.2. It is thought that the work carried out here is a significant contribution to the improvement of ship URN measurement techniques, which can be used to build a new standard or to contribute to the work done in the scope of the international standardization organizations.
• Task 3.2 - On-site measurements – Experimental data for identification and quantification of cavitation noise and other sources (reports D3.2 and D3.3): In this study, measurements have been carried out on six different vessels: three research vessels (two tested by TSI and one larger vessel tested by CTO), one small fishing vessel (tested by TSI), one coastal tanker (tested by SSPA), and one commercial ferry (tested by TSI). In addition to the measurement of radiated noise under different operational conditions, the experimental campaigns included measurements of on-board vibrations. For two of the vessels, there was also a direct observation of cavitation and measurement of pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the propeller.
• Task 3.3 - Development and test of an on-board system for automatic detection of cavitation (report D3.4): The feasibility of a low-cost system has been addressed. The system is based on the use of accelerometer(s) located on the hull close to the propeller(s), able to automatically identify cavitation effects after real-time processing. The satisfactory agreement between the results provided with the system and the cavitation visual records shows the feasibility of implementing a low cost system to detect cavitation in real time. In practice, this means that if the ship is sailing in a noise sensitive area, getting the information provided by the system could help the crew to take the decision to change speed or the propeller settings, when applicable, to have less cavitation, and hence less underwater radiated noise (URN), thus mitigating the potential impacts on marine fauna.
• Task 3.4 - Long-term in-situ real-time measurements of ambient underwater noise, with simultaneous record of AIS data (reports D3.5 and D3.6): The overall objective was to allow o relevant underwater noise data in relation with marine life and ship traffic to be obtained. Four generations of autonomous buoys, with different features or upgrades, were developed during the project and tested successfully in different maritime areas. These, along with the corresponding software are described in the report. The buoys are capable of the following functions:
o Continuous hydrophone acquisition for several hours,
o Real-time data transmission over 3G,
o Satellite alert when 3G is not available,
o Optional WiFi transmission when a ship is in the vicinity,
o Measurement of environmental parameters through CTD probe,
o Registration of shipping traffic through AIS,
o Registration of buoy position through GPS

Results from WP4 – Sensitivity of marine life
The different tasks in work package 4 were the following:
• Task 4.1 - Identification and characterization of noise sensitive areas (report D4.1): In this task, we used the current legislation and definitions from IMO, the Habitat Directive, the Bird Directive, and Natura2000 as well as the database from Natura200to build the distribution map of sensitive species to noise. Then, using the AIS database at EU waters level, we also plotted ship density as an additional layer to define the criteria to be used to select representative marine areas of interest for the AQUO Project. The information collected helped to define the scenarios to be used for the AQUO noise footprint assessment model developed in WP1 (see Task 1.3).
• Task 4.2 – Noise sensitivity of marine life
o Sub-Task 4.2.1. - Displacement effects of ship noise on fish population (report D4.2): This experiment studied the long term behavioural reaction by wild cod to ship noise and describes the character and scale of the reaction. This study took place on the Swedish west coast with a small local cod population equipped with acoustic tags. For the ship noise disturbance, a Swedish Coast Guard ship was used. In general, the observed reactions in terms of horizontal swimming were smaller than expected and what the study was designed for. However, the scale of reaction will not lead to increase in energy consumption due to the disturbance. This study was able to track fish with good accuracy. This is one of the first studies of its kind that tracked free swimming fish over a long period of time around an acoustic disturbance event.
o Sub-Task 4.2.2. - Masking effects of shipping noise on harbour porpoises (report D4.3): This study on ‘the masking effect of ship noise on hearing in harbour porpoises’ consisted of a series of auditory measurements in some individuals held at two facilities in the Netherlands. Their hearing sensitivity was first tested in an un-masked situation by measuring auditory brainstem responses to repeated acoustic stimulation. Subsequently, these measurements were repeated in the presence of red noise, resembling the acoustic underwater signature of ships. The results show that ship noise has the potential to mask the auditory perception of harbour porpoises over the entire frequency range tested in this study. Furthermore, the conclusions of this study recommend that, by contrast to the MSFD criteria focusing only low frequencies, that higher frequency ranges should also be considered.
o Sub-Task 4.2.3. - Tolerance of cephalopods to low frequency ship radiated noise (report D4.4): Offshore noise exposure comparative experiments on common cuttlefish were conducted, in similar conditions as during laboratory studies, in terms of sound characteristics, received levels and time exposure. Particle motion measurements were also conducted both in laboratory conditions, as well as at the same locations and depths where the individuals were exposed at sea. Scanning electron microscopy revealed similar injuries in the inner structure of the statocysts, as those found in cuttlefish in previous experiments.
• Task 4.3 – Criteria for bioacoustic sensitivity of maritime areas (report D4.5): In this task, it is first described how the different zones of influence, for the marine life to its whole, can be expressed. Then, thanks to the joint work of acousticians and biologists, more details are given, establishing the key links between acoustic levels and effective impact. The focus is hereafter made on three species representing different representative species of European maritime areas (Harbour porpoise, Atlantic cod, and Common cuttlefish).
Measures were taken to fulfill ethical issues regarding experiments with animals and approved by an external expert.

Results from WP5 – Guidelines
The last WP is dedicated to the guidelines provided at the end of the project (D5.8). First, a list of possible solutions was established in D5.1 describing two types of solutions: the first ones linked to the ship design including propeller and cavitation noise, and the second ones related to operations as shipping control and regulation, e.g speed changes. The main promising solutions have been assessed in terms of URN reduction (D5.2 and D5.3), impact on fuel efficiency (D5.4 and D5.5) and impact on marine fauna (D5.6 and D5.7). For instance, to assess masking effects, two scenarios were studied: masking of the communication signal used by male cod during spawning to attract females and detection of a killer whale by a harbour porpoise. For behavioural reactions, thresholds of received levels for potential reaction of the animal have been given. An additional common guidelines document has also been produced together with the SONIC project. Its content is enlarged to include all the topics to be addressed when dealing with underwater noise from shipping (such as terminology, measurement issues, noise propagation, noise mapping, etc.).
At the end of the project, it can be concluded that the progress of the studies is in line with the initial objectives. Indeed, the noise footprint assessment model has been validated, the predictive theoretical models have been compared and validated with experimental measurements, some marine fauna criteria have been defined and the redaction of practical and economically feasible guidelines has been conducted.
The final results are practical and economically feasible guidelines based on reliable data obtained in the project and justified as much as possible in quantitative way in order to select the most efficient ones, using the different predictive tools developed alonfg the different tasks of the project. In particular, a noise footprint assessment tool has been developed and validated, integrating marine fauna criteria. A new URN measurement procedure has been described and scientific knowledge on propeller noise and cavitation has been improved.

Potential Impact:
AQUO project lead to significant impacts regarding:
• New technologies for measuring, monitoring, predicting URN for environmental friendliness of Transport
• Solutions and guidelines targeted to maritime stakeholders and authorities
• Consistency with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

Regarding new technologies for measuring and monitoring: six ships have been tested at sea including two commercial vessels. Indeed, URN and cavitation phenomenon have been studied not only on research vessels but also on a coastal tanker and a passenger ship. To ensure good quality URN measurements and to obtain relevant data, a measurement procedure has been described to address the gaps in existing standards. Computational method predictions and scale model experiments have been conducted which allow definition of relevant solutions for reduction of ship URN at design stages or for retrofit regarding new propellers and interaction with ship structure. The tools able to predict the main sources of ship noise are then calibrated, thus providing a quantification of the problem at its origin.
Regarding new technologies for predicting URN for environmental friendliness of Transport to reduce the noise impact on marine fauna, it is necessary to have better knowledge of marine species sensitivity. In the AQUO project, representative marine species from European seas have been studied to derive relevant criteria to decide if a given underwater noise environment affected by shipping is acceptable or not for the resident marine fauna. This evaluation was done thanks to an ocean shipping noise footprint assessment model adapted from an existing tool connected to AIS data. Different realistic scenarios have been defined to assess the efficiency of mitigation solutions regarding noise impact on marine fauna. Such a tool could be used by authorities to monitor shipping in real time regarding underwater shipping noise footprint or to assess the consequences of strategies for improvement.
Regarding solutions and guidelines targeted at maritime stakeholders and authorities, The AQUO project provides a measurement procedure to characterize the actual acoustic signature from the complex ship source with evaluation of uncertainty and repeatability. Once a URN measurement procedure is agreed, it is then possible to compare different measurement results obtained by different stakeholders. A criterion in terms of URN from vessels can then be introduced by classification societies. After completion of this first step, the project provides a practical guide on mitigation measures to help policy makers and ship builders to achieve a reduction of shipping noise impact on marine fauna. This guide aims to be really useful as the overall methodology is given and each solution is documented from a technical and economic point of view.
The main impact of the project is therefore to make possible for the decision maker to quantify the acoustic impact on coastal waters due to shipping, to identify hot areas deserving actions, to select control solutions and assess their effectiveness (possibly their cost-effectiveness) and choose strategies case by case, with reference to the specific situation in terms of traffic, environmental condition and fauna composition and distribution.
The AQUO Project is fully consistent with the orientation given by the MSFD. In particular, the work done in the different WP contributed in the following ways:
• WP1: Development of an underwater, ocean noise footprint, assessment tool. This tool can be used to establish statistics of noise in different European maritime sensitive areas, and also in the future it could be used to monitor in real time the risk to marine life from ship traffic noise.
• WP2 and WP3 improve knowledge of the underwater noise emitted by ships at a wide range of frequencies, and at different speeds. Focus is given to propeller noise including cavitation, which is a major contributor to ship noise.
• WP4 improves the current knowledge on sensitivity of different marine species to shipping noise, by performing dedicated bioacoustic experiments. The results of the porpoise study show that the MSFD criteria for descriptor 11 need revision to include higher frequencies (2kHz and not just 63Hz and 125Hz).
• WP5 has established a set of Guidelines aimed at policy makers, in order to protect marine life from shipping noise, by proposing appropriate design recommendations and mitigation measures, while maintaining fuel efficiency. This Guidelines document is expected to be a key element for the objectives of the MSFD. It summarises not only a methodology but also enhances its main assets: worldwide applicable and smart embodiment of a multidisciplinary approach to minimize the uncertainties and involve the major stakeholders.

It has to be noted that, beyond the initial description of work on which the AQUO project was structured, an extensive dissemination of results at scientific events (refer to report D6.2 and D6.4) was done. The continuous exchanges with AQUO’s End-users and with other maritime industry stakeholders brought additional requirements that had to be addressed and covered as far as possible (reports D6.2 and D6.4).

List of Websites:
www.aquo.eu

Powiązane informacje

Kontakt

Christian Audoly, (Head of Acoustics Group)
Tel.: +33 4 98 03 90 49
Faks: +33 4 98 03 90 96
Adres e-mail
Numer rekordu: 182495 / Ostatnia aktualizacja: 2016-05-12
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